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IP pkt len in ESP transport mode? How to validate ESP pad length?

What will be the value of packet-length/Total length field in the IP headers for ESP packets in transport mode? For instance, in tunnel mode below are the values:- Outer-IP header's Packet length = ...
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Can refer a detailed low level explaination of the OSI model at operating system level?

I understand the function of each layer in OSI model but I can not comprehend the inner working at the operating system level. I can't mentally picture the life cycle of data from application layer to ...
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Why is the highest IP address taken as Router ID by default in OSPF?

I know there are 3 ways for Router ID to be selected in OSPF but my question is specific to the auto-select of ID on basis of highest IP address (loopback or non-loopback). Why is the highest IP ...
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Difference between veth and peer [closed]

When working with a network bridge, does it matter which side the veth is on and which the peer is on? If so, what is the difference between these two? I'm new to networking, and I'm looking at this ...
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Should HTTP load balancer forward bad requests to backend? [closed]

If a HTTP client sends a GET request with a body that would generate a 400 Bad Request response, should the load balancer forward that request to the backend or deal with it immediately? Is there any ...
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2 answers
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Simple IPv6 Global Unicast question

I was reading this article which states: RFC 3587 states that out of the 128 bits in IPv6 addresses, left most three bits are must be fixed as 001. Remaining 45 bits are reserved for global routing ...
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1 answer
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How is 65535 bytes is total length of IP datagram?

The maximum size of an IPv4 packet is 65,535 because the Total Length field is a 16-bit unsigned integer, which has a possible 65,536 values (from 0 to 65,535). This created 2 confusions for me. Say ...
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No internet via GPON when using different equipment [closed]

My ISP provided the following router: ZTE ZXHN F680. It is not very powerful, so I wanted to use my TP-Link Archer AX23, but because this router does not have a built-in GPON interface, I've purchased ...
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Ubuntu - tried to tether phone to pc, can no longer connect to device afterwards? [closed]

I have a normally airgapped pc running Ubuntu. It’s connected to a piece of hardware where I can access its web interface by typing in its IP address on a browser. This was all working fine earlier ...
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2 answers
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How to use IP pool

I am just beginner, I just want to setup my mini data center and for testing i get a FTTH connection and /30 ip pool, ISP reply is something like that, "IP Pool 103.15.xx.xx/30 has been assigned ...
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What are the IP/MAC addresses of requests between 2 different subnets? [closed]

Assume that networks 172.15.10.0/24 and 172.15.11.0/24 are connected through a router with interfaces 172.15.10.254 (MAC3) and 172.15.11.253 (MAC4). If host A sends a packet through its network ...
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How can i find device type and name in linux terminal without install nmap and other similar tools from it ip address? [closed]

I'm looking for find a way to get device name and type like ESET Connected Home Monitor . Eset : Connected Home Monitor can help identify vulnerabilities in your home network such as open ports or a ...
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What are cloud anchors? [closed]

I was exploring Google IO 2022 webpage, having been introduced to it just this year. Something that was interesting to me was ARCore Cloud Anchors - https://codelabs.developers.google.com/codelabs/...
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WIFI data transfer stops when trafic increases over an old and 25 meter long RJ45 cable [closed]

In my home I'm using a 25 meter RJ45 cable to feed a remote part of the house with Internet. I installed a D-Link router (now that I'm at work I don't have the model specs, but it costed 130 € and is ...
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Does my peer to peer network acrhitecure makes sense? [closed]

Basically node has a TCP listener and waits for incoming connections, when one does connect it does handshake and stuff.... Other then TCP listener node has TCP client that connects to the TCP ...
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1 answer
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HTTP and TCP relationship

I always wondered how HTTP knows when it has enough TCP segments in order to process a request or response. Can someone give me more information about the process? Thanks.
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1 answer
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Network packet loss and connection drop every hour [closed]

We experience a significant amount of retransmissions, duplicated ACKs and previous segment not captured when using our proprietary client/server application deployed in our client's network. A ...
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Mux RAD4104, alarm led is red, but alarm log is empty

Cant turn off the alarm LED on my RAD4104 multiplexer. show active alarms is all zero. show alarm-log is empty. Any suggestion, please?
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2 votes
2 answers
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Why is a PoE circuit limited to 328 feet?

I'm trying to learn about PoE and a friend told me the 100 meter limitation on a PoE circuit is because of the DC voltage drop on the power channel, not the data. I had understood the opposite, that ...
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1 vote
2 answers
33 views

Do PoE lighting systems require a separate network from other PoE systems?

I'm new to networking and PoE but am trying to understand it enough to explain myself. I recently spoke to a Genisys lighting rep who told me their systems couldn't be on the same network as an IP ...
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1 answer
24 views

QOS - CPU CoS Weight- pluribus switches

I have different switches and each switch has different cos-weight. Now, it has cos3-weight, cos4-weight and cos5-weight in one switch as 15. In other it is 30. As per this link : https://...
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2 answers
28 views

Extreme 210 fiber port not connecting

Let me preface my question by saying I'm not a network admin and don't know nearly enough about networking. I have an Extreme 210-12p-GE2 switch. My problem is that the fiber port that was working is ...
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  • 113
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0 answers
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vRack on OVH not letting servers communicate even though i've set the ip addresses [closed]

I don't know if i am missing something, but i have multiple servers with OVH on Ubuntu, and i have them all connected on a vRack. For my post i will just use two of them, i have set the ip addresses ...
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2 answers
22 views

IPSEC ESP tunnel mode - Are the ip addresses in outer IP HDR same as addresses in inner encrypted IP HDR?

Am trying to understand how IPSEC in tunnel mode achieves the VPN functionality. I understand that the IP header and payload along with TCP/UDP headers are encrypted. But, if the src and dst addresses ...
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1 answer
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Ethernet Basics - Switch Fabric, Managed Ethernet Switch & Virtual PHY terminology

I'm a new member to this community. I've just started to learn and practice on working with LAN Ethernet PHYs, Switches and other ICs related to Ethernet. However, I've a few questions where I couldn'...
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1 answer
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VLAN trunking - how to ping PC4 from PC1?

I'm still a beginner with VLANs and trunking, and I'm trying to get this topology working. Specifically, I am unable to ping PC4 (10.0.10.11/32) from PC1 (10.0.10.10/32), despite both of them being on ...
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  • 115
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0 answers
9 views

Dlink Voice and Data Vlan on Same port [closed]

I have DLINK DGS-1210-52 I tried to follow the document https://eu.dlink.com/uk/en/support/faq/switches/layer-2-gigabit/dgs-series/es_dgs-1210_como-configurar-voice-vlan that Dlink provided. I have ...
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1 vote
2 answers
77 views

Why shortened version of IP4 exists and it is undocumented but supported everywhere?

For example there is an IP address 192.168.0.1 It is clear that you can use it as the full line, but try that one 192.168.1 It will also work, and it will be automatically converted to 192.168.0.1 ...
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  • 113
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1 answer
27 views

Will this switch do what I require?

I'm a complete network newbie, so please forgive any egregious errors. I'm a Master's student who wishes to perform benchmarks on distributed databases. Firstly, I wish to set up configurations ...
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0 answers
19 views

How to look up IP addresses in a geographical location? [closed]

My goal is to find an IP address in a geographical area (a city, island or state). I know it is possible to get geolocation of an IP address, I'm trying to do the reverse. One way to do this is to ...
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1 answer
38 views

What is this coupler for?

Someone asked me if they could split an Ethernet connection with this device. Obviously, it won't work. As far as I know, since Ethernet 10/100 uses dedicated transmit/receive pairs, it shouldn't work ...
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1 answer
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DHCP Discover Broadcast and its IP (255.255.255) [duplicate]

Cheers, I am trying to learn more about DHCP, and when studying about the session that DHCP goes through every one mentions that it broadcasts a discover message at IP: (255.255.255.255) (as seen here ...
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29 views

VXLAN Use Case For Enterprise Networks [closed]

Implementation of VXLAN is more complex than a standard Ethernet topology implementation and is said to be intended for deployment in large data centers. Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) is a network ...
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1 answer
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Is it possible that a router does not support certain encryption methods? (VPN & some websites failing) [closed]

I just logged into a hotel's wifi and encountered an interesting phenomenon, which I don't understand. Here are the facts: Wireless connection works fine on my private laptop On my friend's corporate ...
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0 answers
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In HTTP2, as it use same TCP connection for bidirectional streaming, why does not messages collide? [closed]

I don't have a formal computer science background so this question might seem elementary to some people. I have elementary to networking myself. This curiosity came to my mind when I was learning gRPC....
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1 answer
20 views

Why are External NAT ports different when both NATs are restricted cone? [duplicate]

I'm in the progress of implementing my own Signaling server with UDP hole punching, everything have been smooth up until both hosts were behind Restricted Cone NAT, then the ports for P2P ...
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0 answers
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Can't connect two routers rip ipv6 [closed]

I have two routers, they must be in RIP ipv6. I did the following configurations on router 0: And on router 1: But still I can't send ping even between routers. What am I doing wrong?
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0 answers
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Issue in Xconnect VPLS [closed]

hello all im having issue in configuring VPLS, can you please guide me as i'm having issue configuring xconnect(its saying encapsulation is not supported in this circuit), which ver of cisco router ...
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0 answers
14 views

NAT not working; can ping web from c3745 router, but not from VM [closed]

Topology: https://i.imgur.com/a1azOy0.jpg R1#show run Building configuration... Current configuration : 1269 bytes ! version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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FSSO Collector agent show old logs

Troubleshooting serious issue with FSSO - Users not getting access to internet because the primary FSSO agent fails to receive those user log on events. out of 3 agents configured (2 in DC1 and 1 in ...
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0 answers
16 views

Where do load balancers sit in microservice infrastructure? [closed]

I'm planning on creating a brand new backend with microservices. I've been looking into infrastructure and I'm unsure as to where load balancers come in. Does the API gateway act as a load balancer or ...
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0 answers
14 views

Why is my true location on Maps app on mac revealed using VPN [closed]

I am using a VPN (NordVPN). I am seeing the VPN IP in browsers - this is ok. However when I check the Maps apps on my mac, it shows my true location. How can I ensure that my true location is hidden ...
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0 answers
11 views

Access IP address from another IP range and subnet [closed]

I have a networking question which I assume is possible to do, but I have no idea how to do it! I have two ethernet connections into my Windows machine (no WAN, all local LAN): (IP / MASK / GATEWAY) #...
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1 vote
1 answer
19 views

Command for interface uptime

Is there any command to find out how long a particular interface has been up on a cisco switch ?
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1 vote
1 answer
14 views

In LTE CUPS architecture, when will the SX/PFCP session establishment is triggered?

Everywhere in LTE call flow and 5G call flow, I see that Sx or PFCP session establishment is triggered upon a initial-attach from UE reaching the control-plane. My question is, PFCP or SX is node ...
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0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Reasons for tcp session break and how to check? [closed]

In advance, I would like to thank you for taking the time to read it. I need the experience of colleagues. I'm having a problem with broken TCP segmentation and would like to find the reasons that ...
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0 votes
2 answers
67 views

Difference between default routes

In my routing table (ip route show command), I've got the following entries: 0.0.0.0/1 via 10.8.3.1 dev tun0 default via 192.168.1.1 dev wlan0 What is the difference between 0.0.0.0 and default? All ...
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  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
46 views

TCP segment with flags ACK, PSH, URG

Can a TCP data segment with a 1 byte length have, at the same time, the flags ACK, PSH, URG set ? Is it conform or not to the TCP protocol ? Thank you.
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1 answer
33 views

How can i create this topology in cisco packet tracer?

How can i create this topology in cisco packet tracer? wiil be it look like this?
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1 answer
24 views

Does OSPF acknowledge DBD packets with an LSAck?

I don't see any LSAck for DBDs being sent out in this sample pcap:- https://www.cloudshark.org/captures/e7dbbc860456 Does OSPF really send LSAck upon reception of DBD packets ?
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