I am experiencing a problem with lost routes in an OSPF over DMVPN environment. I am running ubuntu server 14.04 with Quagga 0.99.22.4, and OpenNHRP 0.14.1.
While technically the DMVPN network is an NBMA network, the NHRP protocol does a simulated broadcast (a capture of the multicast traffic, and a duplicated unicast to other known/configured nodes). This allows the DMVPN subnet to be configured as a broadcast network in OSPF. This configuration is a requirement to do dynamic spoke-to-spoke tunnels, which, in turn, is a requirement of my project.
I'm not sure if the problem I'm facing is an OSPF design flaw, or a quagga bug, but I haven't been able to come up with the right search phrase combinations to find someone having a similar problem.
On this DMVPN network, I have three routers: A hub node in each of two data centers, and a spoke node at a branch (there will be many, many more branches as I migrate them to the DMVPN). Each node has several routable subnets behind it, and the subnets behind each data center node are routable to eachother via other paths. The design allows for either hub node to go down, and OSPF re-converges to allow full communication throughout my AS. This all works flawlessly.
The problem comes into play when there is partial connectivity over my DMVPN. If there is a communication problem from the spoke to the primary hub (which is the DR), then the spoke drops that hub from the neighbor table, and presumes the secondary hub as the new DR. In this particular case however, the secondary hub has no issue communicating with both the spoke and the primary hub, and therefore still happily considers itself the BDR, and the primary hub the DR.
In simulating this issue with a couple of iptables rules to drop traffic to/from the primary hub, I can watch the dead timer expire for the primary hub within the spoke, and at that instant quagga removes all ospf routes from the spoke's routing table.
From the spoke, I can still see a neighbor relationship with Full adjacency to the secondary hub, and the spoke assumes that this hub is now the DR (please note, I've manually changed router-ids, hostnames, and addresses):
spoke-router# sh ip ospf neigh Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface RXmtL RqstL DBsmL 188.8.131.52 254 Full/DR 35.184s 10.10.10.2 gre1:10.10.10.3 0 0 0
If I look at the secondary hub, which can still communicate with both other nodes, it tells a different story.
secondary-hub# sh ip ospf neigh gre1 Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface RXmtL RqstL DBsmL 184.108.40.206 255 Full/DR 36.513s 10.10.10.1 gre1:10.10.10.2 0 0 0 220.127.116.11 0 Full/DROther 35.387s 10.10.10.3 gre1:10.10.10.2 0 0 0
You can probably anticipate the neighbor table of the primary hub:
primary-hub# sh ip ospf neigh gre1 Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface RXmtL RqstL DBsmL 18.104.22.168 254 Full/Backup 37.067s 10.10.10.2 gre1:10.10.10.1 0 0 0
According to tcpdump, I am still sending and recieving hello packets between the spoke and the secondary hub. After the communication breakdown however the hello packets contain some interesting data.
Naturally, the DR and BDR addresses are mismatched, and I can only assume that this is why the spoke router removes all ospf learned routes. The spoke router's hello packets list the DR and BDR as
10.10.10.2 (My somewhat limited knowledge of OSPF would lead me to assume that from it's perspective the BDR should be set to
0.0.0.0). The secondary hub's hello packets list
10.10.10.1 as the DR, and
0.0.0.0 as the BDR (Again, from it's perspective I would assume that the BDR would be listed as itself:
10.10.10.2. This is the case before the communication failure).
So, you can see where this is a bit frustrating since the spoke router still has a perfectly viable path through the secondary hub to the entire AS, but OSPF completely drops all of the known routes to get there.
Can anyone tell me if this is a shortcoming of OSPF or a quagga bug? Is there a configuration setting that would allow me to ignore mismatched DR/BDR in the hello packets? Would that be more dangerous than its worth?
I know that I can work around the issue by doing a dual cloud DMVPN with only one DR at each data center, but that requires a bit more complexity, management overhead, and performance overhead. I'd really prefer to stick with a single cloud dual hub deployment if at all possible.
Please let me know if you need me to provide any more information! (I tried to create DMVPN as a tag, but I don't have enough reputation here yet.)
show ip ospf database on the spoke router still shows the full link state database of the entire AS, yet quagga still does not commit the routes to the kernel routing table.
tcpdump of OSPF Hello packets from the perspective of the spoke router (manually changed ip addresses and router ids, copy/pasted individually so ignore timestamps):
21:13:43.643160 IP (tos 0xc0, ttl 1, id 25083, offset 0, flags [none], proto OSPF (89), length 68) 10.10.10.3 > 22.214.171.124: OSPFv2, Hello, length 48 Router-ID 126.96.36.199, Backbone Area, Authentication Type: none (0) Options [External] Hello Timer 10s, Dead Timer 40s, Mask 255.255.255.0, Priority 0 Designated Router 10.10.10.2, Backup Designated Router 10.10.10.2 Neighbor List: 188.8.131.52 21:13:37.736761 IP (tos 0xc0, ttl 1, id 32711, offset 0, flags [none], proto OSPF (89), length 72) 10.10.10.2 > 184.108.40.206: OSPFv2, Hello, length 52 Router-ID 220.127.116.11, Backbone Area, Authentication Type: none (0) Options [External] Hello Timer 10s, Dead Timer 40s, Mask 255.255.255.0, Priority 254 Designated Router 10.10.10.1 Neighbor List: 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124
I was able to bring a Cisco 2801 in as another spoke in my DMVPN topology described above. Simulating the partial connectivity results in the exact same behavior on the Cisco spoke, as what I experience on the quagga spoke. Right down to the content of the hello packets between the Cisco and the secondary hub.
Yes, more editing:
After seeing the content of the secondary hub's hello packets change, even though it's connectivity perspective hadn't changed, I wanted to try a different OSPF implementation. Specifically, the secondary hub's hello packets have listed the primary hub as the DR, and nothing as the BDR during the simulated communication failure. Even though it is quite happily still acting as a BDR. My thought was that perhaps a different OSPF implementation would still send the proper information in it's hello packets. I attempted to use "bird" as suggested in one of the answers, however it would not allow me to override the NBMA network type to broadcast, therefore it would not participate in my OSPF environment. So the next test was to configure a Cisco router as the secondary hub. I went through the process of setting it all up and then simulated the communication failure.
As I suspected, the Cisco router still advertised it's hello packets correctly from it's perspective: The primary hub as the DR and the secondary hub as the BDR. I was hopeful that having at least one of the two matching properly in the hello packets from the spoke (both set to the secondary hub, remember) would be enough to have the spoke router keep the routes installed to the kernel to allow traffic to flow through the secondary hub to the rest of the network. Unfortunately, this was not the case.
More details, as requested:
xxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxx xx xx xxxx xx xxxx xx xxx xx xxx x Other Subnets +--------------+ Other Subnets x xx xx xx xx xxxxxxx+xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx+xxxxxxxx | | +--------+--------+ +-------+----------+ | | | | | Primary Hub | | Secondary Hub | | id: 126.96.36.199 | | id: 188.8.131.52 | | | | | +------+----------+ +-----------+------+ | .1 .2 | | xxxxx xx | | xxxxxxx xxxx xx | | xx xxxx | | xx xxx | +------+x DMVPN Cloud +-----------+ xxx 10.10.10.0/24 x xx xx xxxxxxx++xxxxxxxx | | | .3 +----------+-----------+ | | | | | Spoke | | id: 184.108.40.206 | | | | | +----------------------+
All interfaces connecting to the DMVPN subnet are "gre1". Yes, the diagram really is that simple when looking at this at the GRE subnet layer. There are routable stub networks that live behind the spoke as well. I can see where the design and different implementations of OSPF potentially never accounted for a node-to-node failure over a single broadcast domain. Physically, in a local layer 2 network it would be highly unlikely to have that type of failure... possible but not likely. But because in this case the broadcast domain is virtual, and extends over the internet, the type of failure scenario described above is much more likely (I have seen it twice in the last year or so). Remember, from OSPF's perspective, the DMVPN is simply a normal layer 2 broadcast domain to use as a transit network.
There are two primary purposes of a DMVPN. One is to ease the configuration and maintenance burden on the hub sites. You can actually run a branch on a dynamic IP if required or desired, and the hubs only need one configuration... not one for each branch. Second is that the technology allows for the dynamic establishment of direct, and encrypted spoke to spoke connectivity over the internet (even with a branch on a dynamic IP). Essentially a full mesh VPN, without the nightmare of a full mesh configuration. Both of these purposes are important to this project because as I grow this network from one spoke to 80, I won't have as high an administrative burden. And, when one branch calls the other over VoIP, the media packets are taking the shortest possible path, without having to hair-pin through a hub site.
In order for OSPF to correctly establish the direct routes, the GRE subnet must act as a virtual broadcast domain. What allows this to work over the internet is the NHRP protocol, which for the sake of argument can be considered like a layer 3 to layer 3 arp.
As Requested, here are the relevant OSPF configs:
router ospf ospf router-id 220.127.116.11 auto-cost reference-bandwidth 1024 passive-interface default no passive-interface gre1 network <branch-subnet>/24 area 0.0.0.0 network 10.10.10.0/24 area 0.0.0.0
router ospf ospf router-id 18.104.22.168 auto-cost reference-bandwidth 1024 passive-interface default no passive-interface eth0 no passive-interface gre1 network 10.10.10.0/24 area 0.0.0.0 network <primary-transit-supernet>/26 area 0.0.0.0
router ospf ospf router-id 22.214.171.124 auto-cost reference-bandwidth 1024 passive-interface default no passive-interface eth0 no passive-interface gre1 network 10.10.10.0/24 area 0.0.0.0 network <secondary-transit-supernet>/26 area 0.0.0.0