There are a couple of options.
If you are doing DHCP snooping, you should be able to find the IP address in the binding database with the following command:
show ip dhcp snooping binding 00:00:00:00:00:00
If you don't have DHCP snooping, the Cisco device is on the same subnet (or supports multip SVIs so you can add an interface on the subnet), you are on a newer IOS (12.2ish or better) with access to TCL, and the device will respond to a ping, then you can use a TCL script. You can find many examples on the internet, one of which can be found here. Once it is able to ping the device (on the same subnet), it should be in the ARP table of the Cisco device.
Generally, it would be quicker/easier to check on the L3 device for the ARP entry or the DHCP server then the second option.
Old answer (prior to question change):
Strictly answering your question, no there is no way to derive an IP address of a device from the MAC address table entry.
The MAC address table is strictly speaking a L2 set of information, tying devices to an interface. At L2, there is no awareness of an IP address (as the L3 and above information is irrelevant to L2 and could just as easily be another protocol).
You would need access to the L3 device for the remote network segment where you could look up the entry in the ARP table.