The best you can usually do is look for communities with your provider that allow you to indicate prepends per peer of your provider. This assumes your provider has such communities and has the peering relationships for this to work. Prepending your own announcements to your peer would have no variation upstream from your provider. Though this method does not alter localpref one AS removed from your provider, it has similar impact in making that path back to you less desirable. There is an exception to influencing localpref upstream that I'll describe at the bottom, though it's probably an edge case.
Some providers such as XO [AS2828] allow you to advertise your prefixes in such a way that your provider announces your routes with with specific prepends for certain peers of theirs.
For example, XO accepts:
2828:1108 prepends once for AT&T
2828:1207 prepends twice for Level3
2828:1303 preprends thrice for Sprint
On Savvis, the community is
3561:30151 which prepends once for AT&T.
These providers usually have communities to indicate the well-known communities of NO_EXPORT or NO_ADVERTISE to specific peers.
One Tier 2 provider I know, InterNAP, is able to influence localpref upstream because they buy transit, so they are a customer of the Tier 1's. They have communities that you could use where they attempt to translate those into specific Tier 1 communities for your upstream advertisements which set localpref to peer-, mid-, or high-level values. See http://www.onesc.net/communities/as6993/Internap-Customer-Guide-1.3.pdf.
XO Communities that Change Customer Announcements to Certain Peers at AS2828 Border
Savvis Prepend Community Attributes
I have no affiliation with the providers used in the examples other than direct experience as a customer.