Is there a way to get a listing of DNS records worldwide that contain a CNAME to a given domain, similar to how some sites provide a listing of domains related to a given IP address?
Short answer: No.
Any site purporting to have a list of domains mapped to IP addresses won't be 100% accurate and it's based on what was seen, not what exists.
Unless you have access to the name servers that may have CNAME records aliases to your domain that you could query or dump the zone files, the best you could do is capture the other hosts names that land on your domain, assuming this is web traffic. For web, you're looking for the host header in the HTTP request.
worldwide? Not on your life.
Those domain info sites know what IP is what because they're doing DNS lookups of a lot of hosts, and they keep detailed records of the answer(s). They can tell you want domains are (or have been) using an IP based on the domains they've queried. They cannot tell you about something they aren't tracking!
The same is true of CNAMEs. You can only know what you've seen. If I add a record to my zone file, no one will know about it until they've queried my record. The RHS knows nothing about my DNS record, as there's no "referer" in DNS. (RHS = Right Hand Side) If I create a CNAME
bar CNAME foo.example.com. The admins at example.com will have no idea I've create