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What makes a client outside an intranet can't access a service inside? Is it a NAT device, a firewall, or a router (in its academic definition sense i.e. gateway sense, not as a commercial router sense), or something else? (My guess is: a NAT or a firewall)

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    – Ron Maupin
    Aug 6 '17 at 23:54
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It could be NAT. It could be a firewall. It could be that the gateway which the client uses doesn't have a route to the intranet. It could be that the client's gateway has an ACL blocking access from the client IP address or the client source port, or access to the destination IP address or destination port. It could be that the router for the intranet has an ACL blocking access from the client IP address or the client source port, or access to the destination IP address or destination port. It could be anything else in the path from the client to the intranet.

It could be any combination of the above.

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If the intranet site is on private IP space then the traffic cannot even route to it from outside the network too.

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