Am I correct in thinking that static MAC address are the mac addresses
of the switch itself?
Yes, the first four MAC addresses belong to the switch itself.
Why are there 4 static mac addresses?
As per this link,
For L2 switches, there are mac addresses for different functions (to
be able to communicate (when we want to telnet, ping or do snmp to the
switch) and spanning tree (to form the bridge ID). On some
manufactures switches, they use 1 mac address for all functions, Cisco
does not. On the 4/5/6x00 devices, there are 1024 mac addresses
assigned to the upervisor (1 or more for the switch, 1000 for spanning
tree (PVST, each instance has its ' own mac address)).
orange highlighted part of the textbook passage, what is meant by
static mac addresses configured by port security feature?
You can use port security to define which MAC addresses should be seen on specific ports.
dynamic mac addresses (interface 1 and 24, which I have connected out
to two other switches), why are there two, and not one, mac addresses
entries learned per port?
Because it's a Layer 2 network. MAC addresses will be learned on every layer 2 device between the source and destination devices.
If you're interested in finding out which MAC address belongs to which device, you can look up the OUI of MAC addresses in your output. For example, I can see you've got a few Cisco, Linksys and Netgear devices.