What flags are available in an IPv6 RA and how are their various combinations interpreted by Windows, Linux and BSD?
I think you are referring to the M and the O flags in the router advertisement. How host OSes interpret these flags is off-topic here. RFC 4861, Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6), Section 4.2. Router Advertisement Message Format details the Router Advertisement Message format, including the RA flags:
4.2. Router Advertisement Message Format
Routers send out Router Advertisement messages periodically, or in response to Router Solicitations.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type | Code | Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Cur Hop Limit |M|O| Reserved | Router Lifetime | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Reachable Time | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Retrans Timer | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Options ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Source Address MUST be the link-local address assigned to the interface from which this message is sent. Destination Address Typically the Source Address of an invoking Router Solicitation or the all-nodes multicast address. Hop Limit 255
Type 134 Code 0 Checksum The ICMP checksum. See [ICMPv6]. Cur Hop Limit 8-bit unsigned integer. The default value that should be placed in the Hop Count field of the IP header for outgoing IP packets. A value of zero means unspecified (by this router). M 1-bit "Managed address configuration" flag. When set, it indicates that addresses are available via Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [DHCPv6]. If the M flag is set, the O flag is redundant and can be ignored because DHCPv6 will return all available configuration information. O 1-bit "Other configuration" flag. When set, it indicates that other configuration information is available via DHCPv6. Examples of such information are DNS-related information or information on other servers within the network. Note: If neither M nor O flags are set, this indicates that no information is available via DHCPv6. Reserved A 6-bit unused field. It MUST be initialized to zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. Router Lifetime 16-bit unsigned integer. The lifetime associated with the default router in units of seconds. The field can contain values up to 65535 and receivers should handle any value, while the sending rules in Section 6 limit the lifetime to 9000 seconds. A Lifetime of 0 indicates that the router is not a default router and SHOULD NOT appear on the default router list. The Router Lifetime applies only to the router's usefulness as a default router; it does not apply to information contained in other message fields or options. Options that need time limits for their information include their own lifetime fields. Reachable Time 32-bit unsigned integer. The time, in milliseconds, that a node assumes a neighbor is reachable after having received a reachability confirmation. Used by the Neighbor Unreachability Detection algorithm (see Section 7.3). A value of zero means unspecified (by this router). Retrans Timer 32-bit unsigned integer. The time, in milliseconds, between retransmitted Neighbor Solicitation messages. Used by address resolution and the Neighbor Unreachability Detection algorithm (see Sections 7.2 and 7.3). A value of zero means unspecified (by this router).
Source link-layer address The link-layer address of the interface from which the Router Advertisement is sent. Only used on link layers that have addresses. A router MAY omit this option in order to enable inbound load sharing across multiple link-layer addresses. MTU SHOULD be sent on links that have a variable MTU (as specified in the document that describes how to run IP over the particular link type). MAY be sent on other links. Prefix Information These options specify the prefixes that are on-link and/or are used for stateless address autoconfiguration. A router SHOULD include all its on-link prefixes (except the link-local prefix) so that multihomed hosts have complete prefix information about on-link destinations for the links to which they attach. If complete information is lacking, a host with multiple interfaces may not be able to choose the correct outgoing interface when sending traffic to its neighbors.
There are also a couple of flags (L and A) in the Prefix Information option as detailed in Section 4.6.2 Prefix Information:
4.6.2. Prefix Information
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type | Length | Prefix Length |L|A| Reserved1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Valid Lifetime | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Preferred Lifetime | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Reserved2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | + + | | + Prefix + | | + + | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type 3 Length 4 Prefix Length 8-bit unsigned integer. The number of leading bits in the Prefix that are valid. The value ranges from 0 to 128. The prefix length field provides necessary information for on-link determination (when combined with the L flag in the prefix information option). It also assists with address autoconfiguration as specified in [ADDRCONF], for which there may be more restrictions on the prefix length. L 1-bit on-link flag. When set, indicates that this prefix can be used for on-link determination. When not set the advertisement makes no statement about on-link or off-link properties of the prefix. In other words, if the L flag is not set a host MUST NOT conclude that an address derived from the prefix is off-link. That is, it MUST NOT update a previous indication that the address is on-link. A 1-bit autonomous address-configuration flag. When set indicates that this prefix can be used for stateless address configuration as specified in [ADDRCONF]. Reserved1 6-bit unused field. It MUST be initialized to zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. Valid Lifetime 32-bit unsigned integer. The length of time in seconds (relative to the time the packet is sent) that the prefix is valid for the purpose of on-link determination. A value of all one bits (0xffffffff) represents infinity. The Valid Lifetime is also used by [ADDRCONF]. Preferred Lifetime 32-bit unsigned integer. The length of time in seconds (relative to the time the packet is sent) that addresses generated from the prefix via stateless address autoconfiguration remain preferred [ADDRCONF]. A value of all one bits (0xffffffff) represents infinity. See [ADDRCONF]. Note that the value of this field MUST NOT exceed the Valid Lifetime field to avoid preferring addresses that are no longer valid. Reserved2 This field is unused. It MUST be initialized to zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. Prefix An IP address or a prefix of an IP address. The Prefix Length field contains the number of valid leading bits in the prefix. The bits in the prefix after the prefix length are reserved and MUST be initialized to zero by the sender and ignored by the receiver. A router SHOULD NOT send a prefix option for the link-local prefix and a host SHOULD ignore such a prefix option.
Description The Prefix Information option provide hosts with on-link prefixes and prefixes for Address Autoconfiguration. The Prefix Information option appears in Router Advertisement packets and MUST be silently ignored for other messages.