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what is the origin of the bandwidth, we get on internet?

suppose we get 10 Mbps link at home and we get it from some ISP but from where ISP gets that and on and on?

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  • Each connection point can set limits for each output port. – SDsolar Apr 18 '17 at 6:03
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You many be under the incorrect impression that there is a single Internet. The Internet is really just a collection of ISPs connecting their networks together.

Each link on the Internet has its own bandwidth. The link between you and your ISP has a particular bandwidth, independent of anything else. Your ISP has links to other ISPs, and those links each have their own bandwidths, independent of any other links.

Your ISP should strive to strike a balance between the total bandwidth it offers to its customers and the bandwidth it has with its peers. This balance will not be a 1:1 ratio; it is very likely that your ISP has much more bandwidth to its customers than it does to other ISPs. This is called an oversubscription, and it works because not all its customers are using all their bandwidth at the same time. There are formulae which may be used to calculate the proper oversubscription ratio. Really bad ISPs can be too far oversubscribed, and their customers can suffer from network congestion.

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There are two main types of connection between ISPs (and few in between variants).

A peering link is a link between two ISPs to allow the (direct and indirect) customers of one ISP to communicate with the (direct and indirect) customers of the other ISP. Depending on the relative market power of the ISPs there may or may not be payment involved.

A transit link is a link where one (usually larger) ISP provides another (usually smaller) ISP with connectivity to the internet in general.

A good ISP will try to keep their internal links and their peering and transit links to other providers uncongested most of the time. A bad ISP may not.

At the top of the pile are transit free ISPs. These ISPs buy no transit and rely entirely on peering.

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