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Bitrates supported by switches, routers and network cards are often 10 MBit/s, 100 MBit/s or 1GBit/s. Newer developments promise up to 10 GBit/s. I do not see a reason why powers of 10 should have a certain meaning here, unlike powers of 2 in memory storage increase.

Why do bitrates increase in that pattern?

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You are incorrect; bitrates don't always increase by 10 times.

Memory storage increases by powers of two because it is addressed with binary (base 2) addresses.

Increasing ethernet speeds by a power of 10 has been a convenient goal, but there is now 40 Gb ethernet and 100 Gb ethernet. Also, Wi-Fi speeds have not been anything like a linear 10 times increase: 802.11 was 2 Mb, 802.11a was 54 Mb, 802.11b was 11 Mb, 802.11g was 54 Mb, 802.11n was 150 Mb per stream, etc.

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This may look that way, but in reality there's more. For instance have a look at the SFP page on Wikipedia. There you'll see listed speeds from 1 GB, 2.5GB, 10 GB, 25 GB. And the next will be 40 GB, 100 GB and even 400 GB.

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