I know that the range of standard VLAN is 1-1005 and in extended VLAN the range is 1-4094.
But is just range is the difference?
VLAN are introduced by the IEEE 802.1Q standard, which doesn't have this notion of standard or extended VLAN, nor made any difference between VLAN under or above 1005.
This is Cisco implementation that introduce this segregation. The first Cisco implementation actually supported only VLAN up to 1001, and Cisco reserved VLAN 1002-1005 for FDDI and Token Ring. They added support for VLAN 1006-4094 later, and called them "Extended VLAN". My guess is that since it was an addition, and probably to enforce backward compatibility, those VLAN are technically different, within Cisco IOS
Quoted from Extended VLAN ID (Disclaimer: this document date from 2007 and part of the content may be outdated)
Before Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T, users were permitted to configure VLANs numbered from 2 to 1001. The remaining VLANs (numbered from 1006 to 4094) were reserved for use as internal VLANs configured by applications. Beginning with Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T, all VLAN numbers except those reserved for default and reserved VLANs are available for user configuration. The result is that users and applications share the VLAN number space from 1006 to 4094.
You can find in this documentation for example this table:
Note that as pointed out by @Andriy Berestovskyy this table is outdated and Extended VLANs are propagated by VTP version 3
AFAIR, there are just two differences:
- Only VTP version 3 supports extended VLAN propagation:
Support for extended range VLAN (VLANs 1006 to 4094) database propagation. VTP versions 1 and 2 propagate only VLANs 1 to 1005.
- Extended VLANs are VTP pruning-ineligible, i.e. they have to be pruned manually:
Extended-range VLANs (VLAN IDs higher than 1005) are also pruning-ineligible.