The destination gets the layer-2 (e.g. MAC), layer-3 (e.g. IP), and layer-4 (e.g. TCP) addresses from the source when something is sent from one to the other. Other information, e.g. serial number, has nothing to do with the network, is OS specific (off-topic), and it would need to be handled by a protocol above OSI layer-4 (off-topic).
The frame sent from one to the other has both the source and destination MAC addresses (assuming it is a layer-2 protocol that uses MAC addresses, e.g. ethernet) in the frame header. This only works if both the source and destination are on the same layer-2 LAN.
An IP packet in that frame will have both the source and destination IP addresses in the packet header.
A TCP segment or UDP datagram will contain both the source and destination addresses (ports) in its header.
The addressing will be part of what is sent, but other information, e.g. the serial number, will be OS specific (off-topic) and require an application (off-topic) or protocols above OSI layer-4 (off-topic).