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On what OSI layer do network cards operate when the use

  1. promiscuous mode
  2. monitor mode

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    Network interface cards can be thought of as layer 1 devices. My advice is not to get hung up on the OSI model.. It's only a model.
    – Ron Trunk
    Aug 22 '17 at 16:03
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A NIC covers layers 1 and 2.

Promiscuous mode is when the NIC ignores the destination MAC address which is part of layer 2. Normally, a NIC ignores all frames with a destination MAC other than their own or the broadcast address.

Monitor mode only exists for wireless NICs - when they receive independent of their (logical) link status all the time - more or less a layer 1 thing.

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