Background (Hypothesis or assertion, framing, not the question(s) but important to what I'm trying to understand.)
I am familiar with IANA and use trace route regularly and I understand there is no self identified router that is "the internet." I understand that. I am also familiar at least in theory with the internet backbone.
I as a mere mortal "consumer" am limited by what my ISP allows over "their" network. They justify it because it's "their network and their bandwidth." They "own" it. They can control what IP I use and even shape my traffic or drop what they don't like.
I assume (yes I know that's dangerous) that powerful corporations like Google, Amazon, etc. don't have to deal with such ridiculous restrictions because they either have a "direct" connection to the internet or are simply so powerful or privileged that no-one would dare. If they own an IP address, say 18.104.22.168 they can set their IP address to that and everyone cooperates (generally.) OK say hypothetically tomorrow Google no longer exists and IANA gives me 22.214.171.124. I know crazy but bear with me. Where do I need to be physically on the internet so as not to be blocked from using it by my ISP. Assuming I'm not being NAT'd. And if Google has to use an ISP what is to stop them from just deciding Google can't use a particular IP anymore and they have to use one the ISP issues?
Question What I seek to understand from a technical point of view is how if I own an IP address I can set up shop with my IP address and how that works (yes I know my ISP wants me to believe they are my only option or I need their permission., but this doesn't explain why Google doesn't need permission from an ISP or doesn't have to just settle for what their ISP gives them.) Yes I know IANA assigns them, but how does one establish it, once it is allotted to you, and without arbitrary limitations imposed by individual networks along the way? Is there a protocol that publishes hey I'm this IP address that I say I am (assuming IANA agrees) so it can be seen across the internet. Say I have a static IP that I already "own" why can't I just use that and tell everyone that the IP my ISP gave me is not the final stop and that there is another IP further down? Do I have to call up on the telephone everyone with a router on the internet and get them to agree I am IP 126.96.36.199 or is this handled centrally? If it's not centrally managed whats to stop just anyone from saying they are 188.8.131.52?