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It would be crazy to have two transmission lines per every subscriber run from the subscriber to the ISP, do ISPs use a multiplexer then?On a cable network everyone is on the same line so multiplexing is definitely needed (since only one line is used, would denial of service attack be possible?), when a subscriber connects to the network, how does he announce himself (how will multiplexer even know about this user)?

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    "It would be crazy to have two transmission lines per every subscriber run from the subscriber to the ISP". Well that was how the telephony system was built. And the xDLS connections still use this. – JFL May 16 '18 at 12:57
  • So every subscriber has two cables just for himself on a distance of few kilometers (or few hundred meters)?Isn't that too inefficient and wasteful (how much copper is used)? – JoeDough May 16 '18 at 13:06
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    It seems it was efficient enough during more than a century. At the time the bulk of the telephony networks were built, there was no other alternative. And copper was much cheaper that it is now. Even now, the cost of copper is anecdotal in the total costs of an ISP infrastructure. – JFL May 16 '18 at 13:13
  • Did any answer help you? If so, you should accept the answer so that the question doesn't keep popping up forever, looking for an answer. Alternatively, you can provide and accept your own answer. – Ron Maupin Dec 25 '18 at 8:27
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The local loop is your home's or business's dedicated connection to the nearest concentrator (often within a PoP). The concentrator basically multiplexes many connections to a single or very few connections and is connected to the ISPs core network, possibly via more concentrators. This follows the general paradigm of the network idea where you connect all nodes in a hierarchical way.

Concentrators have been digital for quite a while since digital multiplexing is much easier than analog. Currently (mostly finished), the shift goes away from virtual circuits towards packet-switched networks which are far more efficient. Using packet switching, you can use the simple local loop for countless applications including telephone calls, even simultaneously.

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What is Local Loop? The portion of the telephone system that connects your home or office to the nearest central office (CO) of your local telco.

The wiring used in the local loop is usually unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling, the transmission method is analog transmission, and the maximum distance from the telco’s CO to the subscriber’s customer premises is about 5 kilometers.

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