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Questions:

I'd like to know how ICMP packets travel in a network? Are they encapsulated within IP datagram?

The RFC 792 doesn't explicitly states the layer of ICMP. Are ICMP messages sent using a header of their own? Which layer does ICMP belong to in TCP/IP?

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It is indeed specified in RFC 792, on the top of page 2:

Message Formats

ICMP messages are sent using the basic IP header.

You will also found in this RFC :

ICMP, uses the basic support of IP as if it were a higher level protocol, however, ICMP is actually an integral part of IP,

AS for the layer, sees this related quesiton: Why is the ICMP protocol considered to run at layer 3 on the Wikipedia page?

which explain why ICMP is in fact a layer 3 protocol.

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