The layering models don't use protocols. The layering models provide a structure to build the protocols on.
The OSI model is a very detailed and strict model. It was developed as a theoretical model (somewhat) in parallel to the growing TCP/IP or DoD model which largely came out of practice. OSI is good way to structure a protocol concept as long as you don't stick to it literally.
The DoD model pretty much throws together everything above the transport layer (=application layer) and everything below the network layer (=link layer) which may be a practical approach when concentrating on the network layer but it lacks coverage above and below when doing more complex designs.
But even OSI might not be detailed enough for every purpose. For example, Ethernet generally covers OSI's physical layer and data link layer. However, IEEE 802.3 defines up to four sublayers for the physical layer and up to three sublayers for the data link layer.