You're quite right, no other organisation can magically see into your network and find, for example, host names unless you have some way to publish them.
But specifically regarding 192.168.0.0/16 type addresses: as private IP addresses are not uniquely assigned, any organisation can use them and assign its own names to them.
The machinery of some organisation's public DNS server might give you an answer, but it would be its answer not yours.
However, the policy about private addresses says that such addresses should not be leak out from their organisations.
RFC 1918 "Address allocation for private internets" p 5:
Because private addresses have no global meaning, routing information
about private networks shall not be propagated on inter-enterprise
links, and packets with private source or destination addresses
should not be forwarded across such links. Routers in networks not
using private address space, especially those of Internet service
providers, are expected to be configured to reject (filter out)
routing information about private networks. If such a router receives
such information the rejection shall not be treated as a routing
Indirect references to such addresses should be contained within the
enterprise. Prominent examples of such references are DNS Resource
Records and other information referring to internal private
addresses. In particular, Internet service providers should take
measures to prevent such leakage.