I know that it's possible to whitelist/blacklist IP addresses (for example, only allowing a few external IP addresses to be contacted from within a VPN). But since IP address destinations are the result of the recursive DNS resolution process (from what what I understand at least).
Does this mean that the DNS resolution phase of a network request is completed prior to network communication between a source and destination and therefore a completely separate process from the establishing/maintaining of a connection. Does this mean that IP/TCP is completely unaware of DNS hostname resolution?
Where does DNS resolution occur WRT the TCP/IP stack?