About the term
The term "Ad Hoc" seems to have completely different meanings in different contexts.
In wireless LAN context "Ad Hoc" means that all devices in the network have the same role. The opposite is an "Infrastructure network" where one device has a special role. The data format (OSI layer 2) is slightly different in both types of networks.
(Note that "WLAN tethering" with a mobile phone uses an "Infrastructure" network, not an "Ad Hoc" one.)
In this context however the term "Ad Hoc" does not say anything about the effort needed for configuring and planning the network:
The effort needed for planning and configuring a "WLAN Ad Hoc" network even seems to be higher than using a "WLAN Infrastructure" network when using modern devices and modern software!
Why do you see the term only in conjunction with wireless LAN?
Of course the operating system does not need to know if the network that you are planning "requires little or no planning" or if it requires a lot of planning.
Therefore you won't find any configuration setting where you will be asked if your network is an "Ad Hoc" network with the meaning of the term "Ad Hoc" described in Marc Luethi's answer.
However because "Ad Hoc" and "Infrastructure" WLAN networks use a slightly different data format, the operating system needs to know which kind of data format shall be used.
Therefore you will definitely find the setting "Ad Hoc" or "Infrastructure" in the WLAN settings.
Is this possible with wired networks, too?
If you want to know if wired network types use the word or term "Ad Hoc":
I don't think so.
Of course there are wired network types having different operating modes that can be selected by configuration. But none of them seems to use the term "Ad Hoc" for a certain selectable operating mode.
If you want to know if there are wired networks which would be "Ad Hoc" when using the WLAN terminology:
"Normal" Ethernet would be the best example.
Ethernet frames are not sent to a device with a certain MAC address which then forwards the frames to the actual receiver. Instead, the "destination MAC address" in the frame sent by the sender will already specify the final destination of the frame (*). In WLAN terminology this would be called "Ad Hoc network".
(*) but not necessarily of the layer-3 packet inside the frame