- DVR sends distances, whereas PVR sends paths;
- DVR is used inside a domain, whereas PVR is used between domains.
- BGP is a PVR protocol.
Distance Vector Routing (DVR)
The DVR protocol is an intra-domain routing protocol, that is, a protocol used inside a domain (by its hosts and routers).
DVR is a type of protocol, where routers send regularly a Distance Vector (DV) to all its interfaces. The DV is basically an array (vector) that indicates the distance towards each known destination.
An example of a DVR protocol is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
Path-Vector Routing (PVR)
The PVR protocol is an inter-domain routing protocol, that is, a protocol used between domains.
PVR is also a type of protocol, where domains send _Path Vectors (PV) to each other. A PV is basically an array which contains the inter-domain path to a domain.
An example of a PVR protocol is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The BGP inter-domain path is also known as the AS path. AS stands for Autonomous System: it is basically a number that uniquely identifies a domain.
For more information I recommend the following documents: