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So ... I kinda struggle to understand the difference between

  dot1dTpFdbPort

Either the value '0', or the port number of the port on
which a frame having a source address equal to the value
of the corresponding instance of dot1dTpFdbAddress has
been seen.  A value of '0' indicates that the port
number has not been learned, but that the bridge does
have some forwarding/filtering information about this
address (e.g., in the dot1dStaticTable).  Implementors
are encouraged to assign the port value to this object
whenever it is learned, even for addresses for which the
corresponding value of dot1dTpFdbStatus is not
learned(3).

and

 dot1qTpFdbPort
 Either the value '0', or the port number of the port on
which a frame having a source address equal to the value
of the corresponding instance of dot1qTpFdbAddress has
been seen.  A value of '0' indicates that the port
number has not been learned but that the device does
have some forwarding/filtering information about this
address (e.g. in the dot1qStaticUnicastTable).
Implementors are encouraged to assign the port value to
this object whenever it is learned even for addresses
for which the corresponding value of dot1qTpFdbStatus is
not learned(3).

Also, I fail to understand what the octets BEFORE the last 6 (=MAC Address) are good for when querying dot1qTpFdbPort.

For example, from a live system:

Name/OID: dot1qTpFdbPort.13.72.15.207.136.233.144; Value (Integer): 372

So i know 72.15.207.136.233.144 are the octets of the MAC address in decimal notation, but what is 13? The corresponding VLAN?

3

802.1D is the standard for general bridging. 802.1Q defines tagged VLANs and priority code points.

For dot1q, the 13 most likely is the VLAN ID (VID). Many systems use the VID as extension of the MAC address in the CAM table, so entries only match withing the same VLAN.

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