Key thing: Business VPN is somehow different than normal-users VPN
In the past, companies wanted to connected their branches were paying loads of money to lease a line from ISP. That is, a dedicated line just connecting both ends of the branch. Nobody else is using that fibre cable, it has two ends which connects the branches. It was PRIVATE network. literally.
Now someone thought, wouldn't be great if we offer a virtual private line.? That is, no physical line exist. Company is using the same infrastructure (ISP cables and networks) as anyone else. But it is still PRIVATE by means of encryption and authentication technologies. You see, if you encrypt your traffic and authenticated it so no one but the intended people can access it. You basically created a leased line.
This is great, now companies don't have to pay for a leased line. But they get a "simulated" leased line, that is, a VPN. Much cheaper, same functionality.
As you can see, no server here. What you are talking about is something called proxy VPN. So you want to visit this blocked site in your country. What if a server outside your country visited it for you. Then create a VPN tunnel toward your PC to deliver it to you. (remember VPN works as a leased line, so hypothetically that server will have a dedicated line for you. But it is a VPN). You will be able to successful visit that site because your server provider will see you taking traffic from that server but cannot see what is inside that traffic.
Now HTTPS uses SSL which is a mean of encryption. Your ISP cannot see what exact information are sent. But it can see you are visiting youtube or some blocked website and block your access.
Please note that ISPs use means of LI (lawful inspection) in which they can inspect your traffic.