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I am really confused by how the layers these model work. I'm not asking about what are their functions. I read that transport layer provides end-to-end of all packet delivery, and networking also provides end-to-end of individual packets. What I am asking is does the transport layer delivers the packets all the way to destination and network layer does the same thing with individual packets? Do layers wait for the preceding layer to finish its job and then perform theirs, or they are not obligated and can run even if the preceding layer doesn't finish? And what does "end-to-end" actually mean? Thanks in advance!

  • They do not actually work in the real world, they are models. – Ron Maupin Aug 31 '19 at 15:39
  • what about the protocols for each layer? – Eye Patch Aug 31 '19 at 15:58
  • Did you read the answer to the above question? You are talking about idealized models to which the real-world does not completely fit. The models were created to try to explain how things work in an ideal world, but the protocols were developed without any thought for the models. – Ron Maupin Aug 31 '19 at 16:00
  • Okay thank you very much – Eye Patch Aug 31 '19 at 16:04
  • @EyePatch This is an article I wrote which talks through the practical implications of each layer of the OSI model. It might be what you are looking for: practicalnetworking.net/series/packet-traveling/osi-model – Eddie Aug 31 '19 at 18:05

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