I'm learning to subnet and I'm constantly doing exercises on paper about this topic. I'm trying to breakdown a network into smaller subnets, given the number of hosts for each one. For now, I only know to do it with hosts, routers and communications subnets between them.
In the meanwhile, I'm also studying the basic components of a network, but I don't know which is the behaviour of the elements in the title when I try to subnet a network with them.
For example, I know that each subnet has one or more gateways and I know that I have to assign an IP address to each of the routers' interfaces that link a subnet; but what's the behaviour of the elements in the title? Should I assign them an IP, even if they don't work at Layer 3 actually? How can I address each of those component in a pratical exercise?