Generally, configuring jumbo frames effects sending and receiving frames. Received frames larger than the configured maximum are dropped. Sending frames may be sized up to the maximum.
Note that almost all network communication is two-way (unless you're only using datagram-based L4 protocols like UDP). Likely, the MTU-1500 frames are received fine while the possibly larger replies are dropped.
All devices in a LAN (L2 segment) must use the same maximum frame size since there's no way to negotiate. In a mixed scenario you need to use different VLANs.
Ethernet frames with a payload larger than 1500 bytes are generally non-standard, so they can only be used in a very controlled scenario where you need to make sure that all connected hosts can handle all possible frame sizes. Mixing them within a segment will sooner or later cause trouble.
Additionally, IPv4 routers connecting those jumbo-frame segments to elsewhere may experience considerable stress due to the required fragmenting when forwarding oversized packets. If you really do need jumbo frames you should only use them between hosts using the same frame/packet size - including routed connections.
The best solution is to either not use jumbo frames at all, or use dedicated VLANs and not route from jumbo segments to the Internet. Some NICs may not support different frame sizes on different VLANs, so you'd need to either swap them or use dedicated NICs.