I am not talking about the router used at home to access Internet .
I am talking about devices used in the network core.
I want to know if there are alternative devices, if any, used for forwarding and routing in any network .
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Routers may take many forms, such as a traditional hardware box that takes packets in, and forwards/routes them, but also, a general-purpose PC that takes packets in, and forwards/routes them. A "layer-3 switch" also does routing.
As long as it is doing routing and forwarding, it can be said to be a router (based on the definition of the functionality), even though it may also be a general-purpose PC (for example).
Technically, Router can be replaced with a router only. Practically, any devices which has routing capabilities can be used replacing a router.
In your case, you can use a Firewall which will enable you for routing as well as other features like security policies, DHCP Services etc.
Hope, This is helpful !!!!!!!