In mobile networks, there is this thing called PGW, which acts as the gateway between the internet and the internal network of the operator.
(From the user's perspective, this could be seen as the name of the locality in the first non-local hop when doing a traceroute from the device, or the last hop when doing the traceroute towards the device, e.g.
T-MOBILE-US.car1.Sacramento1.Level3.net for Sacramento, California.)
What does this mean in the case of an MVNO on a UMTS/LTE network?
Do they run their own PGWs?
- Do they share PGWs between different carriers, e.g. someone like StraightTalk that operates on all 4 major carriers in the US, all as separate offerings, without roaming on one another?
Or is the actual operator that runs the physical UMTS/LTE network is running the PGW, too?
- If so, do they they physically share their own PGWs and MVNO's PGWs? Or do they only have a limited number of dedicated MVNO PGWs?