Do you know at least one protocol (any OSI layer) that, like tcp and udp, works with ports ?
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First, remember that the OSI model is just a model, and nothing in the real world follows it because the host/server OSes have not implemented it.
Ports are addresses for some transport protocols to point to an application-layer process that has bound itself to the transport protocol. The ports are unique to each transport protocol that uses ports. For example, TCP port 12345 is not UDP port 12345.
Other transport protocols may use ports (addresses), for example, SCTP or DCCP, but other transport protocols may not use any addressing at all because they only connect to a single process, or they may connect to specific multiple processes and use something else rather than port numbers for addressing.
IANA maintains the Protocol Numbers page. You can use that as a starting point to research other transport protocols.