For wifi the Max password length is 63 characters. When I choose such a long password will this lead to notably higher power consumption of the network device (router, smartphone, ...)? I would guess that the longer the password the more effort is required for cryptographic operations applied to the transmitted data which leads to higher power consumption. Is this true? And is the increased power consumption noticable when using a very long password (like 60 chars for example)?
will this lead to notably higher power consumption of the network device?
No. The password isn't used in literal. PBKDF2 is used on the password (with the SSID as salt and 4096 rounds of SHA1) to produce 64 hexadecimal digits = 256 bits, which are then used to derive the actual encryption key. Since that happens only once the password length has no impact.