I am currently studying encoding techniques. The scrambling technique HDB3 is introduced as follows:

  • High-Density Bipolar-3 Zeros
  • Based on bipolar-AMI
  • String of four zeros is replaced with sequences containing one or two pulses.
  • A sequence of four consecutive zeros is encoded using a special 'violation' bit. This bit has the same polarity as the last 1-bit that was sent using the AMI encoding rule.
  • The violation bit alternates between + and - pulses for every consecutive group of four zeros. enter image description here

And the following example is given:

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I don't understand the even/odd stuff. What does the "parity of the +/- bits since previous V" mean, and how does one ascertain the even/odd values (that is, how can we tell if it's supposed to be "even" or "odd", as shown by the arrows) as in the example?

1 Answer 1


The point of scrambling is to remove as much DC bias from the electrical signal as possible. DC prevents long links, causing noise and interfering with the use of transducers/pulse transformers for power-free data transmission.

The parity is for the number of +/- symbols, an even or odd number.

  • +- = two +/- symbols, even parity
  • +00+ = two +/- symbols, even parity
  • - = one symbol, odd

and so on.

Four consecutive 0000 require a 'violation bit' V that resolves the problem. "Since previous V" simply means since the last 0000 problem that required resolution.

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