I would like to know if it's possible to redirect all network traffic to a device (it can be Firewall or Transparent Proxy). My lab has the image layout (Physical Connection), how can I force all traffic through the firewall (Logical Connection)?
Traffic within a network is sent directly from host-to-host, so you would need to put each host in its own network and VLAN to force the traffic through the configured gateway on each host. In this case, the firewall.
The firewall would need to be configured as a router-on-a-stick with a subinterface in each network, and a different interface or subinterface to the router.
The router would need to know about all the networks behind the firewall, either statically configured (does not scale) or through a routing protocol run between the router and firewall.
Unless you're using VLANs to separate the subnet between firewall and router/gateway from the rest of the network, your physical setup is flawed. You cannot permit end nodes to talk to the router directly when you want them to use a firewall. A firewall needs to be the only connection between different network zones.
- set up a separate VLAN between firewall and router and trunk the end-node VLAN and the router VLAN to the firewall
- use separate, physical connections that resemble your desired logical connections
If the firewall is transparent (bridging) it might not support variant 1. If it's routing this setup is sometimes called router-on-a-stick.