if in a bus or ring topology, is there any acknowledgement or error mechanism that if a packet is sent/or failed to receive/lost.

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Generally, there are no recovery mechanisms for packets or frames lost in either topology on the data link layer or the network layer. (IP as the predominant network-layer protocol uses ICMP for returning error messages when a packet cannot be forwarded, but I don't think that's what you're asking.)

Packets and frames can get lost at any time due to a failing device or simply by a transmission failure - packets failing checksum verification are dropped.

Recovery of data transported in lost packets is provided by some transport-layer protocols, most prominently TCP, and is otherwise up to the application (layer).


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