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When it comes to auctioning spectrum licenses, I see that spectrums 10MHz wide seem to fetch higher prices (i.e. in South Africa at least - https://www.biznews.com/sa-investing/2020/12/24/telkom-sues-icasa).

According to that article, the licensing condition of the 800MHz spectrum 10MHz wide carries the obligation of 99.8% coverage of the population.

What data throughput speeds does this theoretically support? What is the difference between spectrum allocations 5MHz wide vs 10MHz wide in this regard?

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    This is really a question for Electrical Engineering. It is not something network engineers use, but electrical engineering must deal with when designing the equipment.
    – Ron Maupin
    Sep 9 at 13:07
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The throughput doesn't depend on the frequency band (MHz) but on the protocol and modulation scheme that is used. Roughly, a channel with twice the frequency width should be able to provide twice the maximum throughput (assuming identical noise levels and attenuation).

For the theoretical limits, you might want to check out Shannon's Theorem but I'm afraid the specifics are not within the scope of NE.

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