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If I set port forwarding up on my router to redirect connections on port, say, 50000 to my computer, how can someone connect to my router in the first place ?

Does that mean that my router has a public IP ? If all routers have public IPs like so and considering the amount of routers on earth, how come that there are enough IPv4 adresses for every router ?

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    Numerically speaking, there are enough (v4) addresses for every router, but not for every person, or device. That's why NAT was created. And why IPv6 was created.
    – Ricky
    Oct 27, 2021 at 9:00

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Your router will have a public IP on its Internet facing interface and if you google 'what is my IP' you will see that public IP address. But how that public address is assigned to you will vary from ISP to ISP and will also depend on the type of account you have. If you are just a standard home user then you'll probably find that your public IP will change fairly frequently, especially if your ISP is assigning you an IPv4 public address.

The world is slowly moving from IPv4 to IPv6 addresses because there arent enough IPv4 addresses. According to Google the number of people using IPv6 to access google is approx 35%, but the level of adoption depends on where you are in the world.

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