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Considering two separate analog signals on the same frequency transmitting digital data that represents a frame, from my understanding if any portion of the two signals overlap, this is a collision.

Then would a longer frame, due to it occupying more space, increase the probability of a collision?

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In the simplest terms, if the systems don't have any carrier sense mechanisms, then yes. Longer transmit times increase the probability.

But in Ethernet, with CSMA/CD, stations check whether the medium is free before attempting to transmit. So a station will not transmit if the media is occupied. The probability of a collision is a function of the propagation delay of the medium. That's independent of the frame length.

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