Linked Questions

2
votes
2answers
34k views

At wich layer “routers” work in architecture TCP-IP [duplicate]

Well, i'm studying to a test, based on the following layers: link, internet, transport and application (Architecture TCP-IP) i would like to know which layer or layers "routers" work and why it can't ...
3
votes
2answers
6k views

SSL/TLS belongs to which OSI layer [duplicate]

Can someone please explain SSL/TLS belongs to which OSI layer. I have been looking through many sites and all of them have different options of Application, Presentation and Session.
1
vote
2answers
659 views

OSI and TCP/IP: which is the relation? [duplicate]

In the "network" literature there are always explanations of this two reference models: OSI and TCP/IP. The TCP/IP conceptual model is indeed a "fact" in terms of implementation. Anyone can find the ...
0
votes
1answer
674 views

Dependency between IEEE 802 and OSI model [duplicate]

My question is focussed on IEEE 802.11x for (WLAN) and 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) Wikipedia and other sources underline, that the mentioned IEEE standards just define the PHY and MAC layer from the OSI ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

What is IP networking used for? Also does the application layer include the actual software? [duplicate]

I have read and learnt the fundamentals about the OSI model and its layers but just wondering is there a difference between the OSI model and IP networking or is it covered by OSI model? Bit confused ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Why TCP is not in layer 5? [duplicate]

I read that TCP is in layer 4. But i also read that to send data with TCP i have to establish a session (in the handshaking phase). Does this mean that if we work only up to layer 4 TCP is useless (...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Session layer role(with example) in OSI Model [duplicate]

Could someone provide some real world scenerios to understand the role played by session layer in OSI model. Example: Presentation Layer handles zip&unzip etc. Similarly what does session layer ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What Invariants/guarantees do various layers of the OSI model provide? [duplicate]

I saw it stated in an answer to this other question What transmission service gurantees does Ethernet give? that every layer of the OSI model provides both "hard" and "soft" guarantees to the layer ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

how OSI and TCP/IP layers work? [duplicate]

I am really confused by how the layers these model work. I'm not asking about what are their functions. I read that transport layer provides end-to-end of all packet delivery, and networking also ...
7
votes
5answers
60k views

What layer of the OSI model deals with ports?

I've read that the session layer is also called the ports layer, and a CBT nugget video implied ports were a layer 5 thing. I always thought they were layer 4, just because I guess. (well and tcp ...
5
votes
3answers
60k views

How to know at what OSI Layer(s) does a firewall operate

I understand that Firewalls may operate on different OSI layers depends on the firewall itself. but how can I know if I install specific firewall at what OSI Layer(s) it does operate ?
6
votes
4answers
948 views

OSI layer of Neighbor Discovery Protocol

NDP operates using ICMPv6 and, even though ICMPv6 messages are encapsulated in payload field of IPv6 datagram, ICMPv6 and ICMP are usually considered as network layer protocols. At least, on Wikipedia ...
4
votes
2answers
10k views

Which layer does modem operate and are they still used?

I was searching this for quite long time but I haven't found any satisfying result so my question is basically that, if I understand correctly how modems work and when they are used. I have some more ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

CSMA/CD - physical layer or MAC data link layer (software) implementation

Autonegotiation works at physical layer. Autonegotiation negotiates speed and duplex. CSMA/CD is actually physical layer or MAC data link layer (software) implementation? If autonegotiation is ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Why are the computer systems in the OSI model called “open systems”?

It might be a silly question, however, why are the computer systems in the X.200 model, OSI, called open systems? Note that I've read that open system is defined as "the representation within the ...

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