Questions tagged [data]

For questions about network data, where the payload is the data that is carried on behalf of an application. It is usually of variable length, up to a maximum that is set by the network protocol and sometimes the equipment on the route. Use this tag when your question is about or involving a data transmission or a type of packet sent over a computer network. The structure of a data packet is also on topic.

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Monitor network link to get bandwidth and/or latency variations

I have a controlled SDN lab scenario where I have a control plane and a data plane. The network is composed by: A switch 2 pc connected to the switch for the data plane A controller pc connected to ...
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3 votes
2 answers
90 views

How exactly does ARQ (automatic repeat request) work?

As I understand it, ARQ is an error-checking method, which my textbook attempts to explain it as: ARQ uses an acknowledgement (a message sent by the receiver indicating that the data has been ...
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Is fiber to computer(without the use of any other cables in between) possible?? Are any further developments getting carried out towards this goal? [closed]

All of us know well that the fiber to home(FTTH) connections are a trend nowadays. Every nation is planning to replace the existing metal wires with optical fiber cables. But we also see that the ...
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network IP packet format

i completely understand that why receiver there is 576 bytes but my question is as technology update every after one Minutes then why we can't update that limit [enter link description here][1]
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How do i prevent dataloss, when installing an ethernet cable fairly close to an electric cable? [duplicate]

I want to install an ethernet cable and an electric cable (230V) right next to each other (same cable tube, currently 20mm in diameter, length up to 100m (i think its under 75m but i didn't measure ...
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Does bipolar encoding need a clock

if it does then when will a clock be useful in decoding bipolar signals 'I was thinking' it just see if it detects a -voltage & a +voltage and do "save " the bits accordingly
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2 votes
2 answers
176 views

Why do we need ATM if SONET/SDH can carry IP directly?

If SONET/SDH can carry IP, and ATM rides on SONET/SDH, then why do we need to encapsulate IP inside ATM? That makes "IP over ATM over SONET/SDH". What's its benifit over "IP over SONET/...
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Fiber link loss on Cisco Catalyst 3750x series switch

I have cisco catalyst 3750x 24 port switch series switch, and the switch has C3KX-NM-10G module. Problem : I have connected fibre optic in SFP+ transceiver on G2/TE1 (Uplink).  After 7 to 8 hours, the ...
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By General Convention if we say the Frame size is 1KB do we take it as a 2^10 Bytes or 10^3 Bytes

In my academic we generally follow 2^10 Byte approach , I m really at loss is it by convention only at my college or something which is accepted widely
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1 vote
2 answers
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Reconciling multiple definitions of Bandwidth

I am confused about the meaning of the term 'Bandwidth' in a wireless transmission environment. The two most common definitions I could find are: difference between the upper and lower frequencies in ...
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Port cost relation to data rate capacity

Why is it that the allocated port costs lower for links with higher data rate capacity? Since a highter data rate capacity lowers the frame transmission timing, shouldn't it be more costly?
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Can Northbound interfaces (REST API) in a Software Defined Network (SDN) be used to manipulate QoS parameters?

I am working on a project involving Quality of Service (QoS) manipulation in Software Defined Networks (SDNs). I know that the following parameters affect the QoS in an SDN: Time information (inter-...
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1 vote
3 answers
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How to explain the data flow of OSI model layers in a single picture [duplicate]

Take an example of searching www.example.com in a web browser. I have some confusions at each layer and they are We have opened a web browser and searched for www.example.com. Now, As far as I know, ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What happens if the IP MTU is smaller than the MSS?

Let's say i configure the MSS > IP MTU. Even if it doesn't make sense, would this be possible? Assuming i then try to send a file of the size of MSS or bigger, the network layer will receive the data ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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TCP - correlation between ACKs and receive window

EDIT: I think i get it now. So a simple sliding window mechanism basically assumes the correctly received data is processed immediately. Therefore an acknowledgement implies the data was received AND ...
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3 votes
1 answer
513 views

VLAN VoIP and LAN configuration over multiple switches

Some background: I currently have: Switch A Main 48 port 1Gbps (DLink) Switch B 10Gbps Backbackbone (DLink) Switch C 24 port 1Gbps (DLink) Telephone Switch 1-24 port phone switch connected to a ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What does the speed of Network Switch actually mean?

Network switches usually come in speeds of 10/100/1000 Mbps, and that's all fine and dandy, then I got thinking.. Suppose I have an 8 port 1000 Mbps switch, each port connected to a client. If a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is Throughput/Goodput in Node-to-Node messaging

Upon researching, from my own understanding, throughput is the "measurement of ALL data flowing through a link" and goodput is the "measurement of USEFUL data flowing through a link". Knowing this, ...
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1 answer
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Does the frame package, all are represent as hex data?

I use Wireshark for capturing packages, get many frames. You see the left light blue background space, all are hex data, and right are converted words we can identify. I mean whether the frame ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Filter pcap file by layer and save to another format [closed]

I captured packets in wireshark, filtered for the protocol I'm interested in (DIS), then exported this to a pcap file. I'd like to do analysis on this data in Python. The only part I'm interested in ...
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Network Packet that allows maximum throughput

I created a basic wireless system between two microcontrollers. Each uses the on-chip UART and an HM-TRP radio module to communicate with each other. Eventually I'll have a master-slave setup where ...
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2 votes
2 answers
238 views

Can a LoRa signal pass through human bodies?

If I want to transfer a packet of data from one LoRa to another up to 1km away, if there's a crowd of people will the signal not get through? If so is there an alternative to LoRa to transfer ...
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1 answer
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Verifying 802.3 auto negotiation

This is my setup: The Problem The end point, ethernet device B, is powered by the power injector but receives no data. Everything is connected using CAT5 cable. Ethernet device A signifies a GB/s ...
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1 answer
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Is it possible for a spy to send 100 Peta Byte of secret data securely online? [closed]

Suppose a spy in an enemy country has got access to 100 or more Peta Byte of top secret data. He wants to pass on the data to his headquarters. But he also wants to make sure that at no cost the data ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Wireshark - Application Layer with Data

I am not sure if the title is the correct one. When transfering files over the network, in Wireshark, we see abbreviations like: - PK -> Beginning of a file. Is it a compressed file? - OFT2 -> ...
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2 votes
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How often does it happen that at the Layer 2 (MAC) an error goes undetected?

I know there are certain error detecting and correcting codes added at the Layer 2. However is it still possible to have errors go undetected eve with the addition of these codes? What type of ...
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1 answer
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Structure of 802.11 data field

I can't find a good diagram or anything else, that shows the structure of the data/payload/frame body of a 802.11 paket. Is there also any difference between the protocol version, or do all of them ...
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1 answer
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High Speed data Transmission [closed]

How does NVIDIA GeForce NOW manage such high and massive data transmission between PC and servers? PS: Please attach relevant articles or journal papers to support your claim.
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2 answers
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Differentiate Data or Cable/DSL visitor on a Website

I have a professional issue with this matter, is it technically possible to know if a visitor on my website is connected via mobile data or home/cable/DSL? I got complete IP ranges of all carriers in ...
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1 vote
2 answers
965 views

Extend VLAN over L3 network

I have two sites connected using ipsec, The ipsec is connected using two netscreen boxes and I want to extend VLAN from one site to other Is it possible to achieve that without adding any new ...
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46 votes
6 answers
102k views

Difference between control plane, data plane and management plane?

I think I understand these concepts, but I'm a little rusty. Can someone give a concise, easy-to-understand explanation of these concepts? The planes are logical concepts, aren't they? Is this a Cisco ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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what is bandwidth and its relation with bitrate?

Digital signal consists of many sine waves. Now the signal with waves of frequencies 1Mhz to 5Mhz has bandwidth of 5-1 = 4Mhz. Now the fundamental period of this signal is decided by lowest frequency ...
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2 votes
3 answers
6k views

What kind of data can be considered a Payload?

I am taking a networking class, and I understand that payload data is part of a packet (within TCP or UDP), that is actual data that is being sent from the sender to the recipient. However, what kind ...
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1 vote
2 answers
190 views

How first byte is determined when data is encoded via manchester encoding

I'm reading book about networking now and can't understand one thing. As I've read Manchester encoding uses transition of voltage to interpret incoming signal. Question: When I'm sending data via ...
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3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is persistent connection and session

There is one thing I still cannot understand is persistent connection and sessions. I will explain how I understand all network stuff. Physical layer . This is just voltage levels going through ...
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1 answer
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What is the difference (if any) between CSMA/CA and ARQ?

And would an AP wait to transmit if a device were broadcasting to another AP on the same channel, due to CSMA/CA?
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4 votes
3 answers
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When a datagram moves through a network, do the MAC or IP addresses change?

So there are 4 fields I'm considering. Source/destination of each the MAC address and the IP address. If the datagram is going through a few hosts, which of these values will be changing. From what I ...
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5 votes
3 answers
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How fast data travel wirelessly than in metal?

How fast data travel wirelessly than in metal? does both travel in the speed of light?
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2 votes
2 answers
883 views

OSI model encapsulation

I am trying to understand encapsulation of OSI model, in general it is quite clear for me but I have one question. Please look on this picture http://www.just2good.co.uk/images/gif/ethernetFrame.gif ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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VPN connecting offices vs hiding only VPNs (privacy) and their settings

What's actually difference in settings of VPN when it's used e.g. to connect the company's offices around the world with the headquarters and VPN you just connect to hide what you do on the Internet? ...
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1 vote
1 answer
1k views

IP Datagram Fragmentation total length and payload calculations

I do not understand how to fragment a IP datagram. Let's say the original datagram has a total size of 302 (20bytes header and 282 bytes payload). My datagram needs to be fragmented since it goes ...
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4 votes
2 answers
189 views

Circuit-Switched Network

What happens to data being sent into a circuit-switched network when the incoming data rate exceeds the bandwidth of the network?
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1 answer
153 views

Exclusive responsibility of a DCE

I've read a lot of definitions of DCE and DTE and I'd want to know if data transmission if exclusive responsibility of a DCE.
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2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Nexus 5500 FEX Support

This design guide on networkcomputing.com states the following: When uplinking to Nexus 5Ks, one topology option is to dual-home the physical Fabric Extender. Dual-homing a FEX provides path ...
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