Questions tagged [ieee-802.11]

For questions about the IEEE 802.11 series of protocols, also known as Wi-Fi. This tag should be used when asking about enterprise or corporate Wi-Fi networking questions. Questions about home wireless networks are off topic.

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Why does repeater need to connect to the original wifi network itself [closed]

I'm trying to find out how I can use a Raspberry Pi as a Wi-Fi repeater. Why do all the tutorials say that the Pi needs to authenticate with the original Wi-Fi network first? As in this diagram from ...
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Does each computer/smart phone use electromagnetic wave with different frequency to communicate when they're connected to a WLAN?

I read some papers about WLAN and Wi-Fi. They say that modern WLAN/Wi-Fi uses a kind of technology called "OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)". My understanding is: ODFM means ...
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What LLC type in wifi

I'm trying to understand how wifi (802.11) networks operates. I found that in 802.11, the 802.2 (LLC) layer is used and that this layer can follow different types. type 1 : no connection, no ack type ...
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Mechanism/purpose of the NAV and its relation to the exposed node problem in 802.11

802.11 uses csma/ca as the mac protocol. Every station senses the medium, if something is being sent, then they will set their NAV to the duration ID from the packet being sent weather RTS, CTS, DATA, ...
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Wifi 802.11ac dynamic channel width negotiation

Let's assume that AP1 is on channel 40 width 80mhz, AP2 is on channel 48 width 80mhz, It overlaps. As far as i understand 802.11ac has a functionality which detects width utilization per-frame and ...
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Wireshark: Cannot find frame type of packets

I am getting used to Wireshark operation and currently, I am investigating different frames (control, management, data frame) and using filter in these links (https://mrncciew.com/2014/10/02/cwap-802-...
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WiFi 6 and 802.11ax

WiFi 6 is the marketing term for 802.11ax. However, does that mean WiFi 6 compliant devices must implement all of the amendments that 802.11ax includes? My guess is not due to the WiFi 6 Release 2 ...
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mount a industrial network [closed]

my objective is mount a fault tolerance industrial network, in an already very populated factory. the factory has many production lines and i want to treat them as a separate islands... so i want to ...
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WiFi 2.4 Ghz vs microwave oven

I got lot of complains from colleagues on one of the sites where Cisco APs are installed, usually about poor quality and corrupted audio conferencing. But when I'm on site, everything is usually just ...
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Why wifi channel 6 is supposed to be a good channel in generel? [duplicate]

lets say that we have 44 wifi 2.4GHZ 802.11b/g/n routers each can use any of 11 channels and each channel have exactly 4 routers. In this situation I can see that only channel 1, 11 are my best ...
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How to measure the SINR for channel bonding?

I use to have a set up of a WiFi environment where I assume all devices operating over the same wireless channel, i.e., a single 20 MHz channel. A device would treat the transmission of all ...
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Is the EAP-Request/Identity and EAP-Response/Identity transmitted in the clear in a WPA2 entreprise Wi-Fi setup?

Looking at the WPA2 (Entreprise, let's say PEAP-MSCHAPv2) Wi-Fi protocol, I understand that since WPA2 uses Open System Authentication, and that 802.1X authentication takes place before the 4-way ...
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What is the point of Wi-Fi Association?

In the 802.11-2020 standard, you can read, regarding 802.11 Association To deliver an MSDU within an ESS via the DS, the DS needs to know which AP within the ESS to deliver the MSDU, so that the MSDU ...
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What defines WI-FI?

I don’t quite understand what exactly WI-FI is (regarding to the computer network theory). There are many different definitions of this term. Somewhere it's written that it's a wireless LAN technology,...
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802.11 Protocol on Different Frequency [closed]

Wifi (and the 802.11 protocol) takes place on 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz frequencies. Is it possible to recreate this protocol on a different frequency (say 500Mhz) and create a functional network using a modded ...
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CAPWAP traffic flow

when a client wants to send inter-VLAN traffic, does this mean that the traffic first goes from the AP to the Wireless Controller (WLC) through CAPWAP tunnel, and then the WLC sends it to the default ...
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How effective is CSMA/CA for WLAN and when do collisions still happen?

I understand why CSMA/CA in WLAN is required over CSMA/CD from this post here and was left with the question how effective CSMA/CA is. So I was wondering if there still might be collisions at all. I ...
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Understanding IE Content - calculate checksum

I'm trying to understand article about calculate probe request 6-byte footprint. this what it say: First, a 6-byte footprint is initialized to zero (00: 00: 00: 00: 00: 00). The IEs of each Wi-Fi ...
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Probe Request getting\understanding Information Elements (IEs)

I'm trying to read Information Elements (IEs) from the probe request can't seem to understand the stracture of it as I undersatnd it size can be 0-2312 bytes but how do I know how many there are? I ...
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MAC collisions in Probe Requests

To find nearby routers, mobile devices send probe requests to coax the routers into sending probe responses. Since modern devices don't use their actual MAC address anymore but instead rely on MAC ...
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WPA2 Enterprise with Radius and User Password authentication (via Active Directory) - Confidentiality

We are planning to setup WPA2 Enterprise in our Office. We have Ubiquity APs, a Unifi Controller and want to use Windows Credentials for authentication. We want to use a Linux Radius server (...
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Can a radio share a MAC address with the ethernet interface of an access point?

I have a situation where I have found the BSSID to have a MAC address congruent to the MAC address of the ethernet interface. Is this possible? Does this happen with all access points?
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Optimize Network For UDP Broadcast Traffic?

I have a computer that creates an AP which multiple microcontrollers connect to. The computer sends out UDP Broadcast packets that tell the microcontrollers to do different things. I have an issue ...
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Probe request from user devices broadcasting what frequency?

I have been researching whether a device with a wifi interface sends out signals in the RF spectrum. I have been a little here and there, and I understand that wifi devices uses active and passive ...
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Does a WiFi client vary the strength of the signal it emits? [closed]

I am using a metal container to dampen my WiFi router in the hope of reducing its radiation health risks. I'm wondering if the client device might increase its own emitted signal strength to ...
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Destination address in wifi frame for a host in a different network

I have couple of questions/doubts which I would like to get some advise on. Question#1 Suppose a STA A in infrastructure mode wants to send data to an exterior host (STA B), residing in different ...
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How does a border router work

Supposing, we have following pieces in a theoretical network architecture Network A: A low power IPV6 wireless network Some low power hosts: Low power devices which are connected to the above low ...
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Unwanted Wireshark Optimizing Received 802.11 Channel for Frames

I am trying to run an experiment which involves monitoring 3 wireless channels simultaneously in Wireshark which would allow me to see a single frame captured 3 times on each channel. To do this, I ...
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Can wifi clients in same subnet talk to each other without a WAP?

I understand that a L2 device like WAP is needed to forward packets from one client to another within the same network (based on MAC mostly like in 802.11) However my question is, if there is no WAP ...
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Is knowing MAC needed for talking to another device in same wifi network?

I have heard about ARP protocol for learning MAC address of other devices in a LAN for communicating with each other. However, I am bit confused about how it works in a typical infrastructure mode, ...
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how ieee 802.11s does channel switching? is it supported?

I'm studying about IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks every where on documents i read is pointed that all Mesh Point must be on same channel for discovery and peering. But i can't find anything about ...
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Using 40 MHz wide channels in a 2.4 GHz wireless network deployment

We have a site (a secondary school) where all WiFi networks are managed by us. The building should in theory have no rogue APs that introduce interference, however, other RF emitters such as ...
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How to tell if a device on the network is an access point?

Let's say we have a network with multiple access points. The command arp -a can be used to list the IP addresses and physical addresses of the devices that are on the same network. Now, is there a way ...
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Why are there 11 channels in WiFi communication instead of 3?

I'm a little confused about subdividing the WiFi radio band into 11 channels in the USA, 14 in Japan, and 13 in Europe, and to then use just 3 of them because of the overlapping problem. Why didn't ...
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How to determine which Wifi channel offers the least interference?

I'm trying to set up a roaming wireless network. For this, I have tried to analyze the area of coverage for any external network interference. I do know that networks can change over time and Wifi ...
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How is it possible that CSMA/CA works in areas with a lot of users within a small radius (e.g. rallies, concerts, etc.)?

My understanding of CSMA/CA is that devices listen until a Wi-Fi channel is idle before sending packets. If a collision still happens, then the devices waits a random interval before attempting to ...
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UniFi Network Controller WLAN channel display meaning

I don't quite understand the WLAN channel display. Elsewhere in the UniFi Network Controller, the channel is set to 1. But what does the number 3 in the display below mean? To clearify the situation ...
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Is wifi power consumption related to password length

For wifi the Max password length is 63 characters. When I choose such a long password will this lead to notably higher power consumption of the network device (router, smartphone, ...)? I would guess ...
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802.11s versus IBSS mesh (with layer 3 routing protocol)

I just learned that you can create a Wi-Fi mesh network either with the "native Wi-Fi mesh standard" 802.11s, or by putting all devices of the network in the IBSS mode and run a layer-3 mesh ...
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Where does the 4way handshake fit in with the 802.11 Authentication Frame

In an open network you have the authentication frame on just the 802.11 level: but if the network has WEP or WPA(2/3) there will also be a four way handshake: My question is, where does the 4 way ...
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Difference between standards, protocols and working groups?

I am trying to understand the meaning of standards, protocols and working groups. I read that the 802.11 of the IEEE organization is a working group, trying to implement some standards. I think that I ...
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How does the network client pick a wifi signal, given two available frequencies?

This might be basic, but I don't know the answer... Given a router and a client, both having 2.4G (slower, more range) and 5.XG (faster, less range) frequency radios (and both named with the same SSID ...
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Mesh network 802.11d vs adhoc

What is the difference between 802.11s and adhoc? Is it compulsory to have same channel for wireless mesh node or it can have created using different channels where neighbouring nodes on on 2 non ...
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Mixing 802.11 channel widths

I don't want to dive too deep into Apple's approach to 802.11 other than to say it's what sparked this question. Apple's CoreWLAN setWLANChannel() method allows macOS application to set the NIC wifi ...
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What's the relation between IEEE 802.11s Mesh and the Wi-Fi Certified EasyMesh?

We know there's the the IEEE 802.11s mesh amendment that operates on the L2 MAC layer There's also the Wi-Fi Alliance's "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED EasyMesh™" thingy for bringing mesh interpretability ...
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Does a low WIFI signal affects how many clients can connect?

We have a room which is not very close to the AP and the signal is low. But a laptop with a quality radio connects perfectly. I am wondering if this will change when the number of clients grows? Such ...
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WiFi AP mode. Is AP bradcasting SSID all the time or when it receives the request from the station

WiFi AP mode. Is AP bradcasting SSID all the time or only when it receives the request from the station? I cant find the answer and maybe someone of you guys know the answer.
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Does each node in a Wi-Fi mesh system broadcast its own separate SSID?

From previous experience of both setting up and managing Wi-Fi extenders, my understanding from carrying out scans of the 2.4/5GHz bands is that each extender broadcasts its own SSID - however, I'm ...
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WLC <-> AP CAPWAP communications and ports

According to this document, you need to open UDP 1024 - 65535 between WLC (source) and APs (dest). And it's correct - I can see these sessions getting dropped on my firewall since I didn't open those ...
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Wireless, powerline or ethernet right next to electric cable

I need a new point of access to our existing network. We have power sockets but no Ethernet cable on the spot. I see three possible solutions to achieve this: Add a new WiFi6 router and connect it to ...
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