Questions tagged [internet]

For questions about interconnected networks.

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21
votes
6answers
6k views

What stops someone from configuring their network with IP addresses they do not own?

Here's the scenario. I was picturing a university that bought a range of IP addresses. I think they'd still be inside a ISP (right?), but they'd have freedom to configure stuff the way they wanted. ...
19
votes
2answers
8k views

Is multicast on the public internet possible? And if yes: How?

Is it possible to use multicast on the public internet? If yes: How? Are special IP addresses required and where do you get them from?
18
votes
2answers
3k views

Is it common for ISPs to connect to each other directly?

I'm reading up on the relationship between latency and ISP interconnectivity (that higher ISP interconnectivity results in lower latency, which makes sense to me). My understanding is that IXPs ...
13
votes
6answers
10k views

How does BGP work over TCP?

As far as I know we are using routing protocols to achieve Layer 3 connectivity, I am confused with the fact that BGP works over TCP which is L4. How can L4/TCP be established without prior L3 ...
11
votes
8answers
5k views

Why are IP addresses given to each interface and not device? What would the implications of that be?

Why do we need to give IP addresses to each interface? Wouldn't giving one to each device be enough?
11
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3answers
2k views

How are the hosts in the tracert 216.81.59.173 able to use random domain names? [closed]

How are the host names in this trace route able to use random top level domains? I didn't know there was an 'Empire' or 'victory' top level domain. C:\Users\Chloe> tracert 216.81.59.173 Tracing ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Who pays for traffic when it transits multiple providers

TLDR Question: Who pays for traffic when it transits multiple providers Original Question I know there are a great many sites out there with this question and answer, but as yet I have not been ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

How can I calculate the number of internet routes myself?

In the JNCIA study guide, it is stated that there are currently 120k routes on the internet and that Juniper supported up to 450k. How did they arrive at the 120k? If I wanted to know how many exact ...
9
votes
2answers
13k views

Do Bluetooth Devices have MAC address with the same specification as the MAC addresses of the Ethernet and Wi-Fi Network cards?

I recently found out that ZigBee devices have MAC addresses. ZigBee is more related to Bluetooth from what I know rather than Ethernet or Wi-Fi. Do Bluetooth devices such as phones, headphones, ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Are there any global network other than the Internet?

I found this definition of Global Networks: Currently does any Global Network exists (apart from Internet)? Can someone Quote some examples? Or non-global but on a country-wide scale(ATM network ...
8
votes
1answer
267 views

Upgrading our Network to Managed Switch with Internet Routing

I am a business owner with multiple BT Buisness Broadband lines. We have two sets of VOIP lines and two sets of PC's, each with there own switch board. The problem that we have is that our lines go ...
8
votes
4answers
2k views

Internal BGP route exchange issue

I have BGP multihoming with two cisco routers. Each router has its own ISP and announce our AS with our /24 network to the internet. My issue is between those two routers : Router A, routing table ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

How HTTP is converted to TCP and then how TCP converted to IP?

I know that in Internet Protocol Stack there are actually three layer. They are Application, Internet and Transport. Let's say HTTP in Application layer will be converted to TCP in Transport layer and ...
7
votes
2answers
936 views

How do routers on the backbone avoid IP address conflicts?

As the title suggests, how do ISPs, and other networks connected to the backbone ensure that their host network address isn't already in use by another backbone node, as there is no controlling device ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Internet Cable Has Been cut in two and taped back together

Let me explain, we have a two analogue lines (something like 16 pair each, the standard cable that's put into buildings) that come into our building but they pass through the building next door. ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

Is it true that the fd00::/8 address range (ULA) in ipv6 is for machines that you NEVER want to speak with anything on the Internet?

Is it true that the fd00::/8 address space (User Local Addresses) in ipv6 is for machines that you NEVER want to speak with anything on the Internet? I was just reading that here and rather surprised ...
7
votes
2answers
787 views

What are the differences in the contents of datagrams, frames, and network packets?

I'm reviewing the networking security unit of the class I'm in, and I had a question. I know that datagrams are packets at the transport layer of the OSI model, whilst frames are the name for packets ...
7
votes
4answers
15k views

How to divide an IPv4 network into subnets of different sizes as efficiently as possible? [closed]

I need to divide a network 172.16.0.0/12 into 3 different subnets for different purposes. One of them needs 6 host addresses, another 85 host addresses and the last 100 host addresses. It should be ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Is QoS an issue for VOIP calls over the Internet? If not, why not?

I'm trying to decide whether I should buy SIP trunks from my ISP or a 3rd-party. As I understand it, it's important to maintain QoS on an internal network (i.e. prioritize VOIP traffic). Is this not ...
6
votes
4answers
229 views

Why is the design “intelligence on the edge” better for a computer network?

I have always been told during my network education that the Internet (and any computer network) is and should be designed so that the intelligence is not located on the core of the network. The core ...
6
votes
2answers
183 views

Why is internet speed called Bandwidth?

Why do we refer to our internet speeds as "bandwidth" with units of measurement like "10 Mbps"? As I understand it, Bandwidth is, as the name implies, the width of the frequency band, typically ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Need help understanding how packets travel across the internet

I've been learning about networks recently at a new job, and I did a presentation on what I've learnt so far. When I was describing the relationship between the datalink and network layer, I mentioned ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

Analyze Network Traffic by Autonomous System Number?

I'm looking for the way to take an estimate consumptions toward internet per Autonomous System Number which could help me to make a decision if it's necessary to establish a peering with this AS's ...
5
votes
2answers
239 views

Missing major ISP's from local major IXP's?

I read all the posts on this site on IXP's and my question remains. Any clarity that anyone can bring to this topic would be much appreciated. I have trying to get a better mental big-picture of how ...
5
votes
1answer
150 views

Class A most significant bits '0' as in RFC1166 or older or '00' as suggested in RFC4632?

I was just reading RFC4632 "2. History and Problem Description" and I don't get the part about Class A with MSB '00'. That would in my understanding mean, there are actually only 64 available networks,...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

What's the domain of an IP?

CIDR stands for "Classless Inter-Domain Routing". But what's a domain in this case? Seems to not be the same kind of domain as DNS deals with...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

Smallest IPv6 block advertised?

We've received a /48 allocation from ARIN, and want to advertise smaller blocks from different sites in our organization. I tried advertising a /56 from each site, but ISP is telling me they won't ...
5
votes
1answer
189 views

How are ping times computed

I have been graphing ping (IPV4) responses times/vs packet size. I was expecting to see a discontinuity of around 2*MTU/BandWidth in response time around the MTU boundary (actually, around 1464 byte, ...
4
votes
1answer
213 views

How are IPv4 Addresses provided uniquely to domains?

this question has been bothering me for sometime and I've yet to receive a clear answer (it bothers me whenever I go to sleep). I would like to receive expert answers on this matter. Who mainly ...
4
votes
3answers
7k views

How does the ISP connect me to the Internet?

I know its a dummy question, but I couldn't find any information about it around the Internet. I know about modems and routers and how they work, but I don't get how the ISP connects me to the ...
4
votes
1answer
795 views

OpenVPN, JumboFrames and the Internet

I've been doing some research in to OpenVPN, MTU, JumboFrames, ect... and want to make sure that I have this right. If I increase the MTU over 1500 to 9000 for OpenVPN when connecting to a remote ...
4
votes
2answers
635 views

Internet structure and ISP networks in detail

I am studying about internet structure, ISPs and their interconnection. However, I have trouble connecting some terms and understanding the greater infrastructure of internet in more detail. I will ...
4
votes
1answer
629 views

Cisco Router Setup 1841

I need some help. I am new to using Cisco routers (as far as setting them up my self), so forgive me if this is something simple that I am over looking or not understanding. I have a cable internet ...
4
votes
1answer
895 views

How to use secondary internet exclusively for one host?

I currently have two internet connections coming into my main office. The primary connection is regular static IP cable service and the secondary is a dedicated MPLS Ethernet connection. The primary ...
4
votes
4answers
445 views

configuring for remote internet connection

I am a fresh network engineer and tasked with building a test bed to provide remote internet connectivity for users in remote areas. I have no problems pinging the terminals located on both ends of ...
4
votes
2answers
179 views

Understanding Internet Protocol Suite; The Internet Layer

I am trying to understand the Internet Protocol Suite as described by Wikipedia. What is confusing me is the Internet Layer. So, to see if I understood it, this layer is simply the IP header and ...
4
votes
3answers
6k views

When a datagram moves through a network, do the MAC or IP addresses change?

So there are 4 fields I'm considering. Source/destination of each the MAC address and the IP address. If the datagram is going through a few hosts, which of these values will be changing. From what I ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Ensuring Network Stablity

I recently became the IT guy at a remote school with onsite staff. The network setup is a bit messy right now. I am curious about the best standards to use. Below is a map of the current network that ...
4
votes
3answers
8k views

Some VPNs have 1-5% packet loss

I am currently in this situation and I'll try to be as specific as I can. My firewall has 20 VPNs (over the internet) with different vendors. Everything was fine til a month ago. I usually use ping ...
3
votes
5answers
262 views

Since we ran out of IPv4 now, what does it mean for consumers?

I'm trying to understand what it means for users... Does it mean that some content will not load on websites, increasingly so in the upcoming year or so? Does it mean that certain CDNs or hostings ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

Where in the TCP/IP stack does packet division and reassembly occur?

My understanding is that 1/ the Transport Layer in the TCP/IP stack creates packets for data that is being sent out, and 2/ the packets reassembly process occurs at the receiving end's Internet ...
3
votes
4answers
795 views

Network Address used for hosts?

I was always taught that a network address (eg. 192.168.1.0) cannot be the IP address of a host? Is there a reason for this? After all it isn't used anywhere else like a broadcast address.
3
votes
2answers
93 views

Before the invention of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) did hosts have subnet masks assigned?

Before the invention of CIDR, did hosts also have a subnet mask assigned or only have an IP address and the network was determined by the class of the IP address?
3
votes
3answers
247 views

Are modems needed to connect routers?

I apologize for the stupid question; I'm trying to wrap my head around the basics of networking. Also, please feel free to direct me to the right SE forum, if this is not the right place. My question ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why use T1, T3, OC3 in 2015? Why not just pull fiber?

I am currently looking to upgrade internet connections in our major offices. Given that our reliance on cloud services has grown, some users are complaining of sluggishly behavior. After testing, as ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Create LAN B, and use LAN A’s internet connection

I just rented a desk in an office. They have a LAN connected to the internet, and it’s shared among everyone in the (small) building. I have a few network devices I want to connect, but I don’t want ...
3
votes
2answers
339 views

How is anycast implemented?

According to this answer Google DNS (8.8.8.8) has low worldwide latencies because it uses anycast. How is anycast actually implemented? That is, how does a packet get routed to different computers ...
3
votes
1answer
386 views

Finding Subnet Ranges of IPv6

I need to find a single subnet range to cover 10,000 IP addresses (hosts), given the IPv6 Address 2405:1300:c5c1:322::/108 (for example) I am aware of how to do subnet in IPv4 but cannot grasp the ...
3
votes
1answer
186 views

Satellite Internet Connection - Faster Speed?

I acknowledge the fact that satellite internet maybe quite slow and have high latency. This is generally true for TCP applications like HTTP, FTP etc. If a UDP VPN connection was to be setup between ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Multihomed Internet edge without BGP. Overlapping routes, a viable design?

While the industry is preaching cloud in every market, and users, whether eagerly, reluctantly or unwittingly start falling in line everywhere, few seem to talk about the actual fabric of the ...