Questions tagged [ip]

For questions about Internet Protocol (IP), an OSI layer-3 network protocol. There are two current IP versions in use: IPv4 and IPv6.

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How do i create 12 subnets of different sizes with the ip address of 192.168.10.0 [duplicate]

You were requested to provide subnet masks to meet the requirements (12 subnetworks) as below. What subnet mask do you require for each subnet type? Q2: What subnet mask is required as minimum to ...
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RESEDENTIAL IP OR DATACENTER IP, how to only allow only real humans (without using reCAPTCHA or any such)? [closed]

how do i figure out if a HTTP request to my website is by a real user? in other words, what are factors that determine if IP is a residential IP or data-center/hosting/commercial IP? is only geo-...
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Dupicate entries in Routing Table? [closed]

So just as a bit of context, this is for a VM running that does call processing. So I was looking at the route table on the VM, and noticed that it has this: 12.12.12.64/28 dev bond15 proto kernel ...
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When the first bit reaches the host B, which bit is exit from the host A?

When the first bit reaches the host B, which bit is exit from the host A?
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Understanding subnetting [closed]

I understand how subnetting works but i don't understand how it fits in my everyday life. I have few questions 1.does only ISP's subnet networks or even private ips are subnetted ? 2. If my public ip ...
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What steps must be accomplished in each layer of the TCP/IP model to connect a website?

What steps must be accomplished in each layer of the TCP/IP model to connect a website?
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2answers
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why ip protocol use fragment offset instead of index number?

I was wondering why the IP protocol use fragment offset to define the fragments of an IP datagram instead of using index number (first fragment with index 0, second with index 1, ...). We already know ...
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3answers
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Why to use public IP addresses within private networks?

I have started to work in a multinational company which has a global network spanning across 4 continents (20 0000+ network devices). I noticed that a lot of end user devices (PCs, laptops) have IP ...
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Forwarding and routing table for host [duplicate]

I'm new to computer networking and from what I've studied, I've understood that Forwarding tables map MAC addresses to ports. So they are used by switches. Routing tables map IP to IP ..they define ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between 0.0.0.0 and a loopback IP address?

From the book Computer Network: The IP address 0.0.0.0, the lowest address, is used by hosts when they are being booted. It means ‘‘this network’’ or ‘‘this host.’’ ... All addresses of the ...
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In Bgp TTL security all control packets will have configured hop value?

Topology: loop(2.1.1.1) - routerA (192.168.1.2)--------- (192.168.1.1) routerB - loop(1.1.1.1) I have eBGP peering configured with a Multihop of 2 on both sides and static routes to reach loopbacks. ...
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Why do LANs use MAC addressing instead of IP addressing?

Why do LANs use MAC addressing instead of IP addressing? In other words, why can't a network just assign an IP address to a local area network device and send the data to that, instead of the MAC ...
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VLSM Scheme Approach [duplicate]

I have been asked this question in a Cisco Packet Tracer. It is testing my knowledge of designing and implementing a vlsm addressing scheme. The requirements are: You will subnet the network ...
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1answer
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Extract upstream/downstream ASNs from BGP table path

I want to extract upstream and downstream ASN for any given ASN, for example: https://www.cidr-report.org/cgi-bin/as-report?as=AS4826&view=2.0 My goal at the end is to generate ASN route graphic ...
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1answer
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Length of Version field in IP Datagram header

I have doubt regarding length of "version" field in IP datagram. I have read the possible values are either 4 or 6 but they can represented in binary as 100 and 110, which are 3 bits in length. Then ...
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Will IPv6 make private IP addresses become obsolete?

Will it still be useful to make use of private IP addresses with IPv6?
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Ip fragmentation and packet headers

I read somewhere that a fragmented ip packet can further be fragmented depending on the changes in the network. Now how is the packet reassembled at the router. Because the identification bit can be ...
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1answer
47 views

IPv6 SLAAC and Static DAD

I started learning about IPv6 and I wonder what happens when you mix SLAAC and static addresses in the same /64. My current understanding is as follows: Machine A with a statically configured ...
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Locating where an IP address lives

Without documentation or using console how can I locate a particular IP within my network? Specific issue is I have public IP sitting on a device at a datacenter. The IP address appears to be going ...
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2answers
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End-to-End delay

I’m working through questions from computer networking top down approach and was hoping to get some clarity on the end-to-end delay calculation. At this stage we are not considering processing, ...
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Find device hosting server on the same network without knowing the local IP [duplicate]

I am developing a Java app that hosts a socket server. This server will exchange information with a mobile app connected on the same WiFi network. I am trying to create a seamless experience that ...
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25 views

If a server has both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, how does the DNS determine which to return? See the following example [closed]

These Pings were done at different times of the same day: C:\Users\LPress>ping www.ucla.edu Pinging gateway.lb.it.ucla.edu [164.67.228.152] with 32 bytes of data: C:\Users\LPress>ping www.ucla.edu ...
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How can I use 1 static public IP address for multiple private networks in totally different physcical locations?

So, I know that DNS is important in the running of CDN services. DNS allows the routing client traffic to the physically nearest CDN server. Question is, how can I do the same thing without any DNS ...
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1answer
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Does Internet Stream Protocol (IP version 5) work on the Internet?

IP with version number 5 is dedicated to the Internet Stream Protocol. Can you send such a packet on the internet at large, or will it be blocked/discarded?
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How can multiple devices share an IP across the internet?

I do realize that most LANs sit behind a device running NAT, which translates the users private IP address to a public IP address. My question is still if you are trying to connect to a private device,...
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What is the suitable private IP? [duplicate]

What is the private IP that I may use if I am about to subnet a total of 743 hosts in my office? Should I use 10.x.x.x, 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.x.x, 192.168.x.x or all of them are allowed? Also if more ...
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Is it possible to specify a route for a packet to take?

So, AFAIK, packets "hop" between routers. Packets are forwarded via a router's default path until it gets to destination IP. So is it possible to specify a specific set of routers this packet "hops" ...
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Does 10.10.192.0/20 represent the same number of address with 10.10.195.0/20 [duplicate]

I knew 10.10.192.0/20 can represent the ip addresses from 10.10.192.0 to 10.10.207.255, but I'm confused how does 10.10.195.0/20 represent? I guess it is same with 192.0/20 right?
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Why does a Router need to have a seperate IP for every network?

Assuming we have a router connecting 4 different networks, with the prefixes 00, 01, 10 and 11, the router would need to have an IP address with such a prefix in each network, to be addressable as the ...
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3answers
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Clarification on when routers encapsulate and decapsulate packets

I'm an application developer working on getting a working knowledge of network engineering, so basically a newbie. I've been trying to figure out exactly when routers decapsulate frames into packets ...
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Difference between :: and ::1

I am confused about following netstat output. There are two kind of local ports. The first is: [::]8100 The second is: [::1]8100 I know that [::1] is a loopback address for IPv6. My question is: ...
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1answer
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IPv4 maximum datagram size

The IPv4 datagram consists of two parts:the header length and the payload. The maximum header size is 60 bytes and minimum is 20 bytes. The maximum size of the data can be 65515 bytes. So why the ...
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2answers
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Can link local addresses be used for transit networks without breaking routability?

I am asking this because my ISP uses SLAAC/DHCPv6 to assign addresses to clients. Firewalls, no matter what brand/name/type get a link local IPv6 address complete with a link local gateway AND clients ...
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2answers
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Where are broadcast packages filtered out

When I have one network with a switch. Within that network I have 10 PC. Halve of them are configured within the 192.168.1.0/24 range and the other halve is configured at 192.168.2.0/24. This means I ...
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1answer
144 views

Broadcasting to unknown Class C Network

I am trying to use python to broadcast to my local network, and I cannot find a way to get the subnet mask. I have been suggested to use the default Class C network subnet mask 255.255.255.0, and use ...
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How do you calculate the prefix, network, subnet, and host numbers?

Example: IP: 128.42.5.4 In binary: 10000000 00101010 00000101 00000100 Subnet: 255.255.248.0 How could you determine the prefix, network, subnet, and host numbers?
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1answer
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Find Routes not containing these subnets [closed]

Let's say I have 1000 ranges and I would like to make routes that doesn't match these ranges, anyone has any particular tips or tools to share beside doing math ? Example : I have these ranges 13....
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1answer
63 views

Why Classful addressing is not in use if we can subnet them?

So, Let's think that organization needs 5000 IP addresses. Giving 20 C Class IP addresses will cause of adding 20 entries for ISP router. That's problem. We could give Class B IP address, but that ...
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1answer
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Are subdomain and subnetting related concepts?

Recently while trying to grasp some basic networking concepts - I felt subdomain and subnetting are related concepts and wanted this group to confirm and add more insights on this. I understand that ...
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1answer
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Confusion about TCP/IP data flow in layers

I'm confused about how the data flows through the layers of the TCP/IP model, so I'll just tell what I think it happens (using an email example) and I'd appreciate if you can point my mistakes. ...
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How does the IP address lease process work? [closed]

Curiosity. When a Computer-A has just received an IP lease, for example 2 hours. And immediately it is turned off for about 30 minutes. And then new devices are connected. Can any of these new devices ...
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1answer
386 views

How to Run Static IP Through Comcast Business Class Modem to Router?

I apologize in advance for this kind of nebulous question, but I'm very stuck after many hours of trying and I need help. Here's what I have: Newest model of the Comcast Business Class Modem/Router ...
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How computer “knows” how and what to respond to particulary ICMP messages

How a computer "knows" what to respond to particular ICMP messages? As is known there are various ICMP messages that differ by type and / or code. For example ICMP type 0 is "echo reply", type 13 /14 ...
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58 views

Why can some people use public ip address to access a server from an internal network with the client device within the internal network

As the title suggests. I find it mind breaking to think how network architecture can differ to allow/not allow using public IP address to access a server within internal network from within the ...
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How does loopback address check if TCP/IP stack is correctly working or not? [duplicate]

I have been reading about loopback addresses and most of the online material says that it is used for testing purposes and it validates if TCP/IP stack is installed and working correctly. How does ...
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(CISCO Packet Tracer) Overlap Error

I am trying to set up a network of for different organisational departments based on a given typology: Using Cisco 2911 routers & 2960-24TT Switches. With given addressing of: 'EIGRP 101' 172....
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2answers
56 views

Best way to Fast Reconnect TCP with dynamic IP

I am aware of TCP Fast Open, all though, I'm pretty sure it doesn't apply when the IP of the server changes dynamically. Getting the IP of the server quickly isn't the problem. The problem is that I ...
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0answers
30 views

Packets lost with correct TCP sequence number. Is it possible?

I'm analysing some communication issues that we have between a server (SCADA) and remote terminal units (RTU) that we have in the field. The communications are IEC104 protocol which use TCP/IP. The ...
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Why do corporate networks prefer application-level over network-level proxies? [closed]

I was recently using an application at work, which was unable to download needed files because proxy settings were not configured for the application. The company firewall blocks non-proxy connections....
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2answers
738 views

Confusion about data fragmentation/MTUs - why was it introduced in the first place?

I am currently studying networking as a part of my bachelors and I am a bit confused about why fragmentation/MTUs are necessary. In my lecture slides, it only says "Fragmenting if necessary" under the ...

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