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2answers
72 views

Why do transport layer do data chunking. If there is fragmentation in Network Layer

I just curiously wanted to know about the question regarding L4, L3 Data Chunks, IP Fragmentation : Data chunking happened at Layer 4(Transport, TCP), and Fragmentation at Layer 3(Network, ipv4) ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

TCP connection question

Let’s say I have 4 ethernet interfaces getting IP addresses via DHCP. I make a TCP connection to a TCP server via one of the IP addresses on a certain ethernet interface. After the connection is ...
3
votes
1answer
5k views

What's the difference between port number and protocol number?

Can someone explain it clearly. I know that port numbers are used by applications to differentiate which services you have requested, and routing protocols use protocol numbers in TCP header.
1
vote
3answers
798 views

In IPv4 does the identification field in a TCP packet change for fragmented packets?

If a TCP packet is fragmented then would the identification field of the header stay the same for all of the fragmented packets, or would it increment by 1 so that the receiver would know what packet ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Why does Neighbor Discovery Protocol have to monitor upper-layer protocols?

While reading the RFC of NDP I wondered, why it is necessary to monitor upper layer traffic in order to know if a neighbor is reachable, e.g. a TCP ACK. I do get the IPv6 packet anyway, so I know it'...
6
votes
4answers
3k views

In the TCP/IP model, how does the application layer inform the Internet layer of the destination IP address?

New to networking. How does the application layer inform the Internet layer of the destination IP address? Let's say I make a Http request to www.google.com, which the application layer resolves to 8....
1
vote
2answers
289 views

How does a TCP segment go through the Internet Layer in TCP/IP?

I'm currently learning the reference models. It's said that TCP/IP supports only connectionless communication in the Internet Layer but both connectionless and connection-oriented in the Transport ...
18
votes
3answers
7k views

What do TCP/UDP add to “raw ip”?

I know that both TCP and UDP are built on top of IP, and I know the differences between TCP & UDP, but I'm confused about what exactly "raw ip" is. Would it be fair to say that TCP & UDP both ...
3
votes
1answer
10k views

Can same port configured for different IP address or different protocol

I read following line from port WIKI So, does it mean that same port, let's say 7001 can be bind to a different IP address or different protocol? As per my knowledge, it cannot be and would result ...
7
votes
4answers
496 views

Why is the IP layer aware of higher layers in the network stack?

In the IP packet header there is an 8-bit Protocol field (at offset 9) that holds the "next level protocol", with assigned numbers given in RFC 790. For example, TCP is 6. My question is, why is the ...
33
votes
3answers
95k views

What is the difference between MSS and MTU?

I'm confused as to the difference between maximum segment size and a maximum transmission unit. Can someone please explain in relation to layers 2 and 3? If I had a packet of 800 bytes in the ...
13
votes
6answers
10k views

How does BGP work over TCP?

As far as I know we are using routing protocols to achieve Layer 3 connectivity, I am confused with the fact that BGP works over TCP which is L4. How can L4/TCP be established without prior L3 ...