Questions tagged [networking]

For questions about networking in general. Any question about all on topic network devices can use this tag.

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425 views

How do I properly serialize a network packet [closed]

So I'm currently writing a program that is essentially just a server and a client. The idea is that I want them to be able to communicate with one and other by sending packets back and forth. And I'm ...
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1answer
81 views

Whether the Propagation delay contains the signal from chain into the cache queue?

From the wikipedia: Propagation delay – time for a signal to reach its destination and from the slideplayer.com I found the image: there seems the Propagation delay represent the signal transport ...
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Why do baseband transmissions use TDM?

To the best of my knowledge, baseband transmissions use (only) time division multiplexing. Why is that so? TDM isn't as efficient as statistical multiplexing. Why is TDM preferred for baseband ...
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2answers
112 views

List of frequencies that a device can connect to over 2.4 and 5 GHz channels

When connecting to a Wifi on 2.4GHz or 5GHz channel, a device connects on a certain frequency. Is there a somewhere list of all possible frequencies that a device can connect to on a 2.4GHz/5GHz ...
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1answer
250 views

Sequence numbers and wrap around concept

I was reading an article about the topic and I came across this :"During connection establishment each party uses a Random number generator to create initial sequence number (ISN), which is ...
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4answers
161 views

What exactly is "network automation"?

When we say network automation, what "automation" are we talking about? What is that being automated? I've heard that in network automation we do not have to configure each individual ...
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1answer
40 views

What are the benefits and drawbacks of NSPOF networks over SPOF ones? [closed]

NSPOF has redundant links and redundant network components, so I think the biggest benefit it has over SPOF is high fault tolerance and the biggest drawback is the high cost of buying and maintaining ...
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1answer
66 views

Session layer role(with example) in OSI Model [duplicate]

Could someone provide some real world scenerios to understand the role played by session layer in OSI model. Example: Presentation Layer handles zip&unzip etc. Similarly what does session layer ...
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1answer
600 views

Some mobile clients are unable to connect to UniFi AP mysteriously

We have two UniFi Controllers, one contains the main internet its directly connected to the fibre and then we give internet to the second controller using LAN connection, internet works fine in main ...
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1answer
51 views

confused with transmission delay

I was reading a textbook which says: The transmission delay the amount of time required to push (that is, transmit) all of the packet’s bits into the link. Does it mean that transmission delay is ...
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2answers
67 views

can't send packets if the link is currently busy?

I'm new to networking sorry if my question sounds dumb, I was reading a textbook which says: the outbound link for the packet is the one that leads to router B. A packet can be transmitted on a link ...
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1answer
452 views

Network Protocol vs Framework?

I've been a network engineer for almost 4 years now. I thought I understand what a network protocol means. but now I'm having doubts. For me, Ethernet is a protocol used at layer 2. there would be ...
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2answers
85 views

Layer 2 managed switch and layer 3 switch

If you have layer 2 managed switches which have VLAN's on them, do you still need a layer 3 switch/router?
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why sometimes we need to use Broadband Transmission (Using Modulation)?

I was reading a textbook which says: Baseband transmission requires that we have a low-pass channel, a channel with a bandwidth that starts from zero. This is the case if we have a dedicated medium(...
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1answer
103 views

How to identify Digi CM Console Server via command line/SSH?

Digi CM Console Server is a Secure Access and Management for Servers and Network Devices https://www.digi.com/products/networking/infrastructure-management/console-servers/digicm#overview How do we ...
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3answers
355 views

Can the network devices run out of ephemeral ports due to high use of websockets?

This might be a really stupid question, but something I really want to understand. My understanding is a tcp connections staying open indicates that each of the network devices between the client and ...
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1answer
338 views

iperf3 UDP tuning

I am trying to test throughput in the network. But when i start iperf3 client for sending UDP packets it sends TCP SYN packets. Why does it behave like this? (it should not send udp tcp syn while ...
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6answers
2k views

Why can't we create a hierarchy of hubs?

I was reading the Comptia Network+ All in One book and I came to know that we cannot create a hierarchy of hubs. My question is why so? Are MDIX ports simplex? Why is it not possible for the hubs to ...
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1answer
194 views

Unicast and Multicast MAC address convention

I need help in understanding how Unicast and Multicast MAC address is differentiated as explained in wiki. According to what I understood, when the least significant bit is set as 0 in the first octet ...
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1answer
103 views

Does Telnet need to be activated on both devices I am using or not? [closed]

I've searched everywhere for the answer to this question but can't find a simple yes or no. Basically, I have a virtual server hosting some services and then a physical panel PC in another part of the ...
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2answers
589 views

Routers and layer 3 switches for connecting two buildings on site using fiber

I understand layer 3 switches are essentially routers, but often don't have the capabilities a router has, e.g. NAT. So I'm trying to work out where it would be necessary to have layer 3 switches vs ...
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1answer
1k views

Is it possible to setup IPsec behind NAT without port forwarding?

We want to setup a IPsec connection between customer sites and our office so we can manage the hardware we place at customer sites (e.g. barriers). Its important that the VPN connection stays up all ...
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4answers
325 views

Assigning IP addresses to multiple switches

Thank you in advance for taking the time to read my question, i appreciate it. I am in need of help on IP assigning to 4 brand NEW Araknis switches that I am replacing with the current netgear/tp-link ...
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1answer
582 views

Do mobile phones continuously broadcast their IMEI number so that cell towers can find them?

Edward Snowden said that in an interview. Is it exactly true? Does it have to do with SSN (sim serial number)? Is the SSN broadcasted with encryption and modulation done to it or is the IMEI number?
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0answers
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5g authentication method for IoT [closed]

While i was studying authentication methods in 5g i bumped into 3 authentication methods that seems to be the most important ones: 5G-AKA,EAP-AKA,EAP-TLS. Which one of these three could be more ...
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1answer
942 views

TCP Handshaking Meaning of RST

I am trying to implement TCP handshaking but receive RST instead of ACK: No. Time Source Destination Protocol Length Info 62 24.622012890 192.168.0.147 ...
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3answers
381 views

Why is the trace route to a particular IP not the same as trace route from that IP to mine?

So i am running a trace route from http://www.speedtest.com.sg/tr.php to my system. i get a route. And i run a trace route from my system to the website above i get a different route. Why is that? Why ...
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2answers
62 views

Reconciling multiple definitions of Bandwidth

I am confused about the meaning of the term 'Bandwidth' in a wireless transmission environment. The two most common definitions I could find are: difference between the upper and lower frequencies in ...
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2answers
296 views

Modify the IP in TCP/IP packet

My ip address is specified in the ip packet sent to the next node. I wonder if a device that handles this packet can modify the ip address before forwarding it to the final destination? In theory ...
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0answers
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CCNA static IPv6 interface id understanding question [duplicate]

Hello, Can anyone advise why I would add ::1 to a subnet in IPv6? In this case I am looking to use the global unicast address and not the link-local even though I would normally do this.I would add ...
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1answer
85 views

Can people with an ISP access your network if it is on the Default Free Zone?

Let's say you have a router on the DFZ (despite costing an absurd ammount of money). Would your network work the same as if you have an ISP in terms of web hosting, etc? Can people still access your ...
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1answer
44 views

Whether PPTP Client need virtual interface to communicate with PPTP Server? [closed]

We know in PPTP VPN, the VPN Server is using a virtual Interface to provide encrypted data. Whether PPTP Client need virtual interface to communicate with PPTP Server? and more, if yes, whether ...
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1answer
74 views

filling routing table with next hop addresses

in a multi hop network when the packet leaves the source is it loaded with all the ips of the stops on its journey, then at each hop it checks the bitmask with the nodes routing table to see if this ...
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1answer
27 views

Some questions about a DMZ and where to place my web servers? [duplicate]

Currently i build a new network for our company which is not my specialism as i'm actually a software engineer so excuse me when this is a stupid question. I read a lot about networking last few ...
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2answers
505 views

Vlan vs. Subnet Broadcast Domain

It is my understanding that Vlans separate broadcast domains, but I often see people say, "subnets define a broadcast domain" as well. Is it correct to say, "Vlans define a L2 broadcast domain, and ...
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4answers
1k views

Firewall placement

Most diagrams I come across are as follows: ISP > router > firewall However, wouldn't you want a firewall before the router to protect the router? E.g ISP > firewall > router
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2answers
79 views

Best way to make a network failsafe?

I have a Debian based machine with 2 completely different network interfaces from 2 different ISPs acting as a backup for my server connection. These have two different IPs (Let's say IP1 and ...
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1answer
45 views

Understanding IP scheme, distribution and usage [duplicate]

I'm new to networking and I'm doing my best to understand how things work. I do have a problem in understanding IP scheme idea (even though obsolete), more specifically, their structure, distribution ...
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0answers
128 views

Why can't i reach devices in the other network?

I have 2 networks and want to connect them with each other. It should be possible that all devices in network A can communicate with devices on network B and other way round. 1 network is "managed" by ...
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1answer
27 views

Additional subnets in a class C IP [duplicate]

If i'm designing a new subnet mask for a class C IP that will have 5 subnets that means I need to borrow 3 digits since 2^3-2 > 5. My question is, how many additional subnets do we have? would it be ...
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2answers
39 views

Will TCP packets smaller than the full bandwidth of its link travel at the same speed?

If I send 5bytes over a 1mbps connection will that travel faster than 500bytes. Or is the latency after propagation going to be constant since the packet is under 1mb? If you downvote because you ...
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3answers
632 views

Why cant i reach the other network while i have added the routes and firewall rules to allow traffic? (Pfsense/USG200)

I have 2 networks, the current one and the new one. The current one is not configured by me and one big mess and contains heavily out dated hardware (especially servers). I want to be able to access ...
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4answers
207 views

Are there any alternative devices to routers?

I am not talking about the router used at home to access Internet . I am talking about devices used in the network core. I want to know if there are alternative devices, if any, used for forwarding ...
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2answers
1k views

Encapsulation: can a higher protocol encapsulate a lower protocol?

I've heard someone say that a protocol higher up the osi model can encapsulate a lower protocol. As far as I know, personally, a protocol can only encapsulate a same-level protocol or one at a ...
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3answers
119 views

Who owns the in-between routers displayed when I execute a traceroute command?

When i traceroute a website, i get the IPs of all the routers in the path between me and the website. Who owns all those routers? Are they organized in a particular kind of building?
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2answers
778 views

Fat-Tree topology

Fat tree network topology looks like a tree topology like below figure. In tree topology, we have same terminologies like Root, parent, child etc. This is mainly used to connect a large number of ...
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0answers
21 views

How many times is the data packet copied before finally reaching the NIC? [closed]

On a typical linux machine, how many times would packets be copied from the application layer to all the way in its journey to the network card. I am assuming the protocol being used here is TCP/IP ...
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3answers
3k views

Which is the best way to encrypt all the IP traffic in LAN?

I'm trying to encrypt all the IP traffic in a small LAN network but the in that network all kind of devices are connected i.e. PCs, Laptops, IP Cameras, IP Sensors, etc (new and old devices). I have ...
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1answer
113 views

What steps must be accomplished in each layer of the TCP/IP model to connect a website?

What steps must be accomplished in each layer of the TCP/IP model to connect a website?
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1answer
281 views

why the size of a frame is dependent on the data that is being sent in the payload of the frame

I'm new to networking, just a question on frame size. I was reading a book which says: An interesting characteristic of character/byte stuffing, is that the size of a frame is dependent on the data ...

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