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Questions tagged [routing]

For questions about routing, the process of selecting to which network path traffic is sent. Consider using a more specific tag if your question is about a routing protocol like BGP or OSPF.

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7
votes
2answers
950 views

NAT Overlapping

I am trying to do some networking lab. Basically, I have a network like this: So, is it possible to configure NAT router in such way, that PC1 and PC2 can access remote HOST and each other. The ...
22
votes
3answers
60k views

Why must all areas connect to an Area 0 backbone in OSPF?

This question is a literal repost of the same question asked on The Cisco Support Community. Answers are unique to Stack Exchange. Why is area 0 the backbone area in OSPF? Why must all other areas ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

How does NAT share one public IPv4 address across multiple private IPv4 addresses [closed]

I think it's a very classical question, but, thought I've have some background, I don't have enough vocabulary anymore to search and understand correctly in the Web. Let's say I have a home network ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

How does the router know how to route the packets to my terminal?

Suppose I have a network of 2 computers, each having a private network address of 192.168.1.101 and 192.106.1.102. For my public ip address, it is 10.2.10.172. When I make a http request to google....
19
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7answers
6k views

Does CIDR really “do away” with IP address classes?

I am still struggling to understand to what extent CIDR really renders IP address classes obsolete. Here's what I understood so far: It's ridiculously inefficient (and impossible, too) to assign ...
15
votes
3answers
20k views

MPLS vs Encrypted VPNs - traffic security?

Why do people say a lot of times that they have two connections between two offices - the main one being over MPLS and the backup one over VPN. Why not run a VPN over MPLS too? Is MPLS secure? Can no ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

How are MAC/IP addresses used in routing

I have to teach my sixth form about MAC Addresses and IP Addresses in a few weeks time and there are some areas I am unclear on which I am hoping some of you will be able to clarify for me. I have ...
6
votes
2answers
546 views

VLAN-Subnets 1:1?

I often hear people saying that each VLAN is a subnet (or is associated with a subnet) but is that really true? Assume I have 10 big offices. I will have a subnet for each office but only 2 VLANs ...
12
votes
5answers
9k views

When is BGP needed?

I have a question about BGP. When exactly is BGP needed? I remember reading that BGP is needed for communication between autonomous systems, but is this always true? For example, in packet tracer I ...
15
votes
2answers
8k views

In which OSI/TCP-IP model layers do BGP, RIP protocols belong?

We know that in the OSI or TCP-IP model, the higher layer utilizes the services offered by the lower layer. For example, the data link layer uses services offered by the physical layer, network layer ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

minimum hop limit for a packet where there are n routers between source and destination

I am having some confusion while calculating he minimum hop limit ... consider following scenario: (source)-------(R1)--------(R2)--------(destination) Now when an IP datagram is supposed to travel ...
10
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3answers
4k views

Inbound BGP load-balancing from same ISP router

I have two BGP routers for DIA with an issue with one provider in that the two links to this provider land on the same SP router. My ethernet handoffs via two separate MetroE links from another ...
8
votes
1answer
5k views

Static routes: numerical next-hop vs interface

I'm reviewing old Cisco modules, and in CCNA 2, Module 2.5.1.2, it states, Under certain conditions, the network administrator will not want to configure the static route with an exit interface but ...
3
votes
4answers
152 views

Need of routers and IP addresses

I dont know if my research is enough or not but I could not find answers on the net. My question is why not use bridges instead of routers. We know bridges can connect two different networks. Using ...
7
votes
2answers
7k views

Dell PowerConnect 5524 VLAN routing

I have a Dell PowerConnect 5524 that I'm trying to configure. What I want is simple routing between VLANs and the user guide is less than helpful. On page 220, it says (or implies) that all you need ...
4
votes
1answer
649 views

What is the point of a subnet mask on a local network?

I have a question regarding subnet masks and my understanding (or misunderstanding of them). So when a subnet mask is used, a bitwise AND is performed using the subnet mask and the IP address(es). ...
2
votes
1answer
449 views

Cisco Prefix List Won't Appear in Route Table

I have the following prefix-list configured on our router: ip prefix-list adsvr seq 5 permit 172.30.5.241/32 ip prefix-list adsvr seq 10 permit 134.239.130.143/32 ip prefix-list adsvr seq 15 permit ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

Do unmanaged switches honour QoS priorities set by managed switches?

Details about the devices We have a 24 port NETGEAR managed POE switch that has QoS capabilities. We also have the following unmanaged switches, 24 port Cisco POE, 48 port Cisco, 48 port NETGEAR, ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Best path in BGP Routing

Assuming 'Network A' is having 2 ISPs which are directly connected to 'Network B', which path will be used to connect to 'Network B'? Network A --> IP Transit A / IP Transit B --> Network B
46
votes
8answers
4k views

Network Neutrality, how does it actually work, technically speaking?

In this NPR article there is mentioned 'network neutrality' with very little details on what it actually is or how it actually works. I tried researching it on my own but I get a lot of non-technical ...
37
votes
8answers
27k views

How would a router with /32 WAN subnet mask communicate with the rest of the Internet?

I'm studying networking and one of the most basic things I've been told countless times is that computers can't communicate outside of their own subnet. On the other hand, by looking at some ADSL ...
22
votes
4answers
46k views

Why use iBGP inside an Autonomous System, if IGP protocols fulfill the need for internal communication

Can anyone explain why we need iBGP for the routes when we have the IGP protocols (OSPF, RIP) for internal communication within the AS? I have read a lot of articles and books, but I could not find ...
21
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7answers
32k views

Difference between access list and prefix list?

Can someone explain with an example whats the difference between an access list and prefix list.
16
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7answers
98k views

What are the differences between VRRP and HSRP?

Are there any significant differences between VRRP and HSRP?
13
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5answers
14k views

Why does OSPF need Type2 LSAs?

Learning more about OSPF for CCNP studies. I'm looking at how OSPF builds its links, and have just covered Type1 LSAs. Looking at Type1 LSAs, I'm wondering why these are even necessary? The book ...
9
votes
3answers
13k views

Whats's the function of a loopback interface in routing protocols?

So I've got this task where I have to setup a virtual network with an OSPF routing protocol. I firstly ignored this loopback interface I had to configure on the routers since it didn't do any ...
13
votes
2answers
8k views

What is a non-portable IPv4 address block?

For example, a Whois query for 4.4.4.0 says: ADDRESSES WITHIN THIS BLOCK ARE NON-PORTABLE Does the owner simply declare the block or a subnet are not up for sale? Or does non-portable have a ...
12
votes
3answers
11k views

OSPF Stuck in Exstart Adjacency State

According to this article two routers will get stuck in the exstart adjacency state when their configured MTU sizes do not match. Does a VLAN tag affect this as well even if the routers involved are ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Something is filling my force10 ARP table

I have 2 force10 s25 switches that are used for a dark fiber link between two school buildings. One of my switches is filling its ARP table to the brim and then failing. This can happen as often as ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

Cisco NAT hairpinning

I have a Cisco router configured NAT (4 static NAT and dynamic NAT). My problem is that I can't access internal servers using public IP addresses from the internal network. I know what the problem ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

OSPF and its use of Multicast

When it comes to OSPF and its use of multicast, am I correct in believing that IGMP forwarding and an IGMP querier is still required within the local segment? My understanding would be without this, ...
6
votes
2answers
546 views

MPLS can reroute, but can it route?

I have 4 Cisco routers, connected one to another like the following: **R1**(s1/0)--(s1/0)**R2**(s1/1)--(s1/0)**R3**(s1/1)--(s1/0)**R4** All of them have an IP address assigned on their interfaces. ...
6
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2answers
14k views

Poison reverse example

Can you give me an example when poison reverse is actually necessary? Distance vector routing protocols employ split horizon with poison reverse to minimize the convergence time when a route is no ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

Can a network with a default gateway successfully ping a PC in another network without gateway?

Please see the picture first. Let someone ping from PC1 to PC2 (which has no default gateway). Would it be possible for the ping to successfully reach to PC2 and then come back in the fashion ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

eBGP Dual ISP, Dual Edge Router

I am currently using a very simple eBGP and iBGP configuration in my network to route out through a single ISP. This diagram gives a rough idea of what I currently have in operation: I am running out ...
4
votes
1answer
283 views

Optimizing Network Topology

Recently I wish to split the network by VLANs. Mainly for two reasons Exclude management interfaces from the commonly accessible lan Separate WiFi traffic (security and broadcasts) The current idea ...
11
votes
1answer
8k views

How is BGP “AS_SET” used?

RFC 1771 defines a path attribute type of AS_PATH as follows: AS_PATH (Type Code 2): AS_PATH is a well-known mandatory attribute that is composed of a sequence of AS path segments. Each AS path ...
10
votes
1answer
11k views

RIB vs FIB differences?

Can someone explain the differences between a RIB and FIB a little further? I didn't see any similar questions on the site so I thought this would be a good addition. The RIB routes and the FIB ...
7
votes
3answers
13k views

OSPF or iBGP for interior routing protocol?

So the plan is, two core routers each with a eBGP session to one of two ISPs with full routes. Both routers publish their full tables to each other so they can control traffic flow more intelligently ...
6
votes
4answers
3k views

Why do I get “% Warning: use /31 mask on non point-to-point interface cautiously” when I use a /31 subnet mask?

Why do I get % Warning: use /31 mask on non point-to-point interface cautiously when I use a /31 subnet mask over Ethernet, and why am I not able to ping from R1 to R2 when both the interfaces have ...
6
votes
1answer
646 views

Router benefits in 2018 compared to a L3 Switch

What are the benefits nowadays to use a Router instead of a L3 Switch ?
5
votes
1answer
1k views

routing: understanding the default route vs. prefix length, administrative distance and metrics

I'm trying to understand how routers make their routing decisions. This is what I'v come up with and I'd like to know whether I'm right or not: First check whether there is an entry in the routing ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Gateway of Last Resort on Cisco Switch Stack

When I run show ip route on my Cisco 3850 switch stack, i get the following output PO-SW-SVR-SS-02(config)#do show ip route Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP ...
4
votes
2answers
274 views

IS-IS multi-area

It is well known that an IS-IS L1 router chooses the nearest L1/L2 router to route inter-area traffic, if there is no route leaking as defined in RFC 2966. However, providing that there is no route ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Cisco ASA RRI and OSPF redistribution

This is a follow-up question based on this original question. The following topology is present: The Cisco ASA is our Internet firewall, as well as VPN gateway, terminating VPN connections. The ASA ...
4
votes
2answers
562 views

Can I Use BGP as an IGP - Multisite w Redundant Layer 3 MPLS WANs

The requirements are Hundreds of sites. Each has a router and firewall and a switch stack. Layer 3 MPLS WAN with BGP to provider VRF. BGP as an IGP? iBGP Would you distribute a public ASN across ...
3
votes
2answers
5k views

Establish an iBGP connection using BIRD

I'm trying to setup an iBGP session between two nodes running BIRD 1.4.5 in my lab network but I can't establish a working session. My config looks like this on both hosts except the different ...
2
votes
1answer
7k views

Setup the BGP + ospf network

I've the next Lab with GNS3 I have two autonomous systems(100,200), when the AS 100 run a OSPF with two areas, 0 and 1. The AS 200 has only a router and computer, so easy. But I don't know how to ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Is there a way to determine my network transportation to specific path?

How can I determine my network transportation to specific path. I would like to determine that my data packages will go through specific routers.
21
votes
3answers
4k views

CEF operations on L3 switch vs router

I understand that L3 switches use CEF for faster packet forwarding. However, CEF will not work for packets that need to undergo NAT. Does this mean CEF isn't used by edge routers and edge L3 switches? ...