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Questions tagged [transport-protocol]

For questions about or in relation to the transport protocol or OSI layer 4. For instance the best-known transport protocol of TCP/IP is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

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Trying to understand how web browsers create that Client Hello [closed]

I have two checkpoint devices which have https access. Both have same configuration on httpd2.conf and httpd-ssl.conf. When I use the same browser(Firefox 112), which is set to use only TLS1.2 or TLS1....
Libni's user avatar
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28 views

Is it possible to forward SMTP connections for various domains in the same server to different internal ports? [closed]

I have a server machine. If an incoming connection comes on https://abc.com:443, it's redirected to internal port :81 and if https://xyz.com:443, it's redirected to :82. This works fine. Now I have 2 ...
iammilind's user avatar
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1 answer
57 views

What happens when the sender sends more data then the advertised window by the receiver?

I am relatively new to networking. I am doubting what happens when the sender sends more data than the advertised window by the receiver. I mean that the receiver advertises the window size based of ...
Ayush Gupta's user avatar
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18 views

how to calculate the udp checksum when the udp payload is and odd number e.g 45 bytes payload [duplicate]

I am new to networking and was learning about the UDP Protocol and i came through the term UDP checksum. I searched the internet spent so much time finding the correct way to calculate the UDP ...
Immad's user avatar
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2 answers
81 views

How does leaving a TCP connection half-open makes SYN and SYN+ACK stealth and absent from the logs?

I was studying about TCP SYN (stealth) scan which involves carrying out port scan while avoiding detection. I also read that it is similar to TCP connect scan except that the last ACK packet is ...
user12137152's user avatar
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1 answer
223 views

What is the unit and the behaviour of the congestion window?

I've learned that the congestion window is the maximum amount of packets that can be sent in one transmission round. Now TCP seems to acknowledge the packets in bytes, so wouldn't it make more sense ...
Felix's user avatar
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2 answers
890 views

Why are TCP keep-alive messages sent with an already ACKd sequence number?

This is what the TCP rfc says about keep-alive messages: Implementers MAY include "keep-alives" in their TCP implementations (MAY-5), although this practice is not universally accepted. ...
user86942's user avatar
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2 answers
43 views

Is a ODU connection between two endpoints necessarily bi-directional?

Within an Optical Transport Network (OTN), where two nodes are connected via ODU, is it possible to configure this link uni-directional? I realize this is a very unusual application, but it is an ...
Bash Frank's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
414 views

Where does the "Reliable Data Transfer" (RDT) concept come from?

A while ago I took a Networks class at my university, and we spent a great deal of time talking about "Reliable Data Transfer" (RDT), as detailed in many articles and textbooks similar to ...
Jake's user avatar
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1 answer
393 views

What stategy use TCP Cubic in Fast Recovery?

I want to do some simulations with different TCP algorithms I was reading one of the earliest papers for TCP CUBIC and I don't see explicitly the strategy of Fast Recovery after a loss of the packet. ...
Giannis Aggelis's user avatar
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Are there protocols which utilize TCP shutdown for writing (a.k.a half-close, SHUT_WR)? [closed]

In TCP socket programming, there is a feature that allows to shutdown socket only one way, where data cannot be read from the socket, but it can still be written to. I've seen it referred as "...
Jonathan Idaho's user avatar
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1 answer
803 views

What are unusual ports?

I found the unusual ports at 2 places, maybe one has got the idea from the other without acknowledging it. Hi, I am trying to understand mismatch port application. I am reading the article: https://...
user2994783's user avatar
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133 views

How does QUIC encrypt packets containing multiple CRYPTO frames?

TCP is slowly being replaced by QUIC and I'm implementing a component that looks at QUIC packets to extract the server name indication from initial packets. The code is working fine, assuming that: (1)...
juhist's user avatar
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1 answer
102 views

Can QUIC prevent DNS/NTP amplification for DDOS

According to Cloudflare's article dedicated to QUIC - subtitle Deflecting Reflection implies that QUIC may prevent tampering IP packets. Doest it meat that QUIC may kill DNS/NTP amplification for DDOS ...
pacman's user avatar
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1 answer
367 views

How does QUIC provide delivery guarantee?

I'm struggling to grasp how QUIC implements handshakes in contrast with 3 handshakes in TCP. I came across with this picture on Wikipedia. As QUIC uses UDP, I don't understand how the protocol ensures ...
pacman's user avatar
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2 answers
2k views

How is congestion avoided when using UDP?

I understand how TCP goes about this - through various methods such as Congestion Window (CWND), Sliding Window, Slow Start and Fast Recovery - it's basically built into the protocol. I understand ...
Inquisitive's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

What does it mean that telnet uses port 23? [closed]

On the IANA Transport Protocol Port number registry, you can see that telnet connects to port 23. However, telnet takes a port number as an argument. For example, you can access the HTML of google.com ...
user84425's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
131 views

Why do QUIC packets require a sequence number? [closed]

This may be a silly question, but if in QUIC we maintain separate sliding windows for each stream, why is there a need for sequencing even below the stream level? It seems to me that an application ...
EL_9's user avatar
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2 answers
946 views

UDP supports multicasting and broadcasting in transport layer or application layer?

We know that UDP does supports multicasting and broadcasting. My question is which layer "UDP supports multicasting and broadcasting"? Is it transport layer or application layer? We know ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
61 views

Which protocol enforces a transmission time limit?

I would like to use an internet protocol for communicating with people in which transmissions are necessarily under 0.1 seconds. Is there any example of a pre-existing internet protocol where, by ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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1 answer
62 views

Does socket address include transport protocol (http://)? [closed]

Let's say I have the following: http://ip_addr:port This is supposedly called the socket address (see sources below), but I can't find a conclusive answer anywhere if the transport protocol (http://) ...
Intrastellar Explorer's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
202 views

When using link state routing algorithm, does each router have a map of the other routers?

I think when using dijsktra algorithm, each router's shortest-path tree can be different. And in link-state routing, all routers have the same topology of the total network. Therefore, does each ...
new_be's user avatar
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2 answers
676 views

Acknowledgement, retransmission of layer2 is actually belongs to layer4?

I followed from this question understand that only transport layer responsible for acknowledgement. But I have read on book stop and wait, GBN, SR protocols uses acknowledgement, retransmission in ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
641 views

What will be the sequence number consumed by FIN flag? [duplicate]

In the connection termination phase, suppose the FIN segment from the client-side contains data ranging from sequence no 100 to 200, So will the ACK no from the server start from 201 or 202? Will the ...
Tushar's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
20 views

RSVP warning: ID "data" is not configured

I am trying to follow this document: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/12_2sr/qos_12_2sr_book/config_rsvp.pdf to configure rsvp, using gns3, for Entering Senders or ...
SWETHA CHILVERI's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
3k views

Where are 0 TCP/UDP ports banned?

It is well-known that, on most systems, using 0 for the UDP destination port or for the TCP source or destination ports is disallowed. Is this required by RFCs, or is this just common practice? If it'...
joshlf's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
3k views

What is the minimum MTU of IPv4 68 bytes or 576 bytes?

I read that 68 bytes is the minimum size of IPv4 datagram every device must be able to forward without further fragmentation. 576 bytes is the minimum size of IPv4 datagram every device has to be able ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
4k views

Which one is right, UDP has 508 or 512 bytes payload limits?

We know the size guarantees the datagram won't be fragmented in IPv4 is maximum 576 bytes. But the size when use UDP header 8 bytes and if we take UDP payload 512 bytes and choose maximum header size ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
614 views

Why loss of first Syn + Ack from the server will not establish a connection? [duplicate]

In TCP 3-way handshake, 3 segments will be sent (SYN, SYN ACK, ACK). What if loss of syn+ack from the server will not establish a connection? What if the third segment(ACK) is lost? Is the sender ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
775 views

Why sender window or congestion window size becomes 2^n mss after nRTT in slow start mechanism?

I seen everywhere in slow start mechanism if initial sender size denoted by cwnd= 1mss , then after 1 RTT cwnd becomes = 2 mss, and after 2 RTT cwnd becomes = 4 mss and so on. My question is why ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is really TCP takes 3*RTT time to make a connection?

TCP takes 3 RTT time I have read from one stack overflow answer to make a connection with server. We know that TCP takes triple (Syn, Syn/Ack, Ack) to make a connection by 3-way handshake with server....
S. M.'s user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

How is UDP used in multimedia system inspite of being connectionless

We know that UDP does not care about segment (packet) in-order and their arrival on the destination.Then how on YouTube or VoIP (skype) are we able to stream videos? If a packets is lost (doesn't ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is it possible for TCP can accept out of order segments?

TCP is connection-oriented protocol whereas IP isn't connection-oriented protocol. Any packets before sending into transport layer sorted operation must have been done in network layer. That's why we ...
S. M.'s user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Definition of a socket [duplicate]

I wanted to confirm whether the definition of a socket I've understood in a computer network context is true. A socket is file who is unique and named by local IP,Local port, Foreign IP and foreign ...
Lucifer G's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
65 views

Is there any research that tracks fragmentation and drop rates of UDP packets based on size?

I'm designing a P2P system. I need to decide an ideal packet size that maximizes the efficiency of my system. This answer claims a 508 bytes is the maximum safe size, but I believe larger packets ...
MaiaVictor's user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
4k views

What's the advantage of IPSec over TLS/DTLS? [closed]

What's the benefit of IPSec over TLS and DTLS ? If someone's goal is to assure authentication, integrity and confidentiality, can't he/she simply encrypt the content with the two last protocols (on ...
Alan Evangelista's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
73 views

Does UDP can be exposed to stateful analysis?

From protocol theory we know that TCP is stateful protocol. Different stateful packet filters do filtration based on connection state. I.e. it can distinguish responses and replies. It's obviously for ...
z0lupka's user avatar
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0 answers
37 views

Why large queueing delays are experienced as a packet arrival rate nears the link's capacity? [duplicate]

From the book "Computer Networks A top Down Approach": It says if hosts A and B both are sending at rate R/2 and router's outgoing link has a capacity of R. There will be delays experienced ...
AJ HUNTER's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
439 views

How to create an internet protocol like HTTPS? [closed]

If I want to create my own internet protocol, what should I do? How can I create it? Will people be able to use my protocol in their internet browsers? I asked this question in a simple Discord server ...
HyperSetups's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
854 views

How TCP sequence numbers work in bidirectional communication/sliding window?

I was trying to understand how TCP works (not in detail of course). I was surfing the web for easy-to-understand flow diagrams and a question arose and couldn't find a straight answer. Let's suppose ...
Ursescu Ionut's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
735 views

100BaseTX Ethernet Idle code ("/I/") 4B/5B origin

While searching how the PHY LINK status is determined, I stumbled across this answer : In 100BaseTX Ethernet, link pulses aren't used, but instead, link status is detected and maintained via the ...
Lkaf Temravet's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
353 views

What happens to the packets in the sender buffer when "eventually a timeout would be reached" for a **delayed ACK** in a AIMD TCP connection?

In a AIMD TCP connection, What happens to the packets in the sender buffer when "eventually a timeout would be reached" for a delayed ACK for a specific packet at the sender side? Suppose ...
AAEM's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
876 views

What would happen if TCP flow control is turned off hypothetically? [closed]

I understand that TCP flow control provides a way for the receiver to backpressure the sender. But what if we eliminated this from the protocol. Of course, the receiver would still ACK everything ...
Shuheng Zheng's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
440 views

I have issue with MSS and window size [duplicate]

I made a short example because I have tried understanding the difference between MSS and window size in tcp header when we consider a sender and a receiver. So let's say sender and receiver use the ...
eyesima's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
49 views

Nature of TCP Timeouts

Are timeouts in TCPs inherently part of sequence numbers, or is it an entirely different component of a TCP packet? I understand that timeouts provide some level of reliabilty to a data stream, in ...
CyberCrusader's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
637 views

Is the TCP Reno Fast Recovery algorithm really linear?

I'm reading through Computer Networking, 8th Edition by Kurose & Ross, and I came upon this figure(Figure 3.52 pictured below), which graphs the operation of TCP Tahoe & TCP Reno. The graph ...
Mrcitrusboots's user avatar
10 votes
5 answers
5k views

Does the destination port change during TCP three-way handshake?

I'm learning networking programming in C and there is a question bothers me a lot, does the destination port change during TCP three-way handshake? Let's say I have a cilent application running on ...
secondimage's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
83 views

How are Ports Exposed to the Network?

When you register some server's port, whether it be an application, web, or something else - where exactly is this port registered? I understand how ports work in that they are essentially signposts ...
Steveguile's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
1k views

Do these 2 packets belong to the same tcp socket?

Let's say we have two packets A and B. A: Has source-IP S1 , destination-IP D1 , source-port SP1 , destination-port DP1 B: Has source-IP S2 , destination-IP D1 , source-port SP2 , destination-port DP1 ...
kathelk's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
7k views

What is "TIME_WAIT" connection in a TCP connection and what is it's purpose?

I am requesting a webpage running on local server port 8080 and was expecting one connection to be established between the server (port 8080) and client (random port). But one additional port is also ...
samshers's user avatar
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