All Questions

90
votes
6answers
567k views

How do you calculate the prefix, network, subnet, and host numbers?

Example: IP: 128.42.5.4 In binary: 10000000 00101010 00000101 00000100 Subnet: 255.255.248.0 How could you determine the prefix, network, subnet, and host numbers?
26
votes
4answers
11k views

OSI Model and Networking Protocols Relationship

When most networking students first learn about the OSI model, they spend a great deal of time trying to figure out which layer of the model a particular protocol fits into. We get a lot of questions ...
76
votes
4answers
364k views

Why and how are Ethernet Vlans tagged?

I hear about VLAN tagging, but I don’t quite understand the concept. I know a trunk cannot accept untagged packets without configuring a native VLAN, and that access ports only accept untagged ...
5
votes
3answers
7k views

The maximum length of CAT6 for intranet network?

Recently I purchased CAT6 cable with a length of 150 meter. I bought another CAT6 with a length of 148 meter. I joined both the cables using RJ45 cable coupler. I tested it using LAN TESTER, and ...
163
votes
6answers
330k views

The slash after an IP Address - CIDR Notation

What does the "/16" means in here : "192.168.0.0/16", for example.
9
votes
2answers
10k views

In IPsec VPN, how is the pre-shared key encrypted?

I was doing IPsec VPN on ASA 8.0, and I understand a little about that. The initiator starts by sending its ISAKMP policy to the responder, and the responder sends back the matched policy. After that, ...
117
votes
8answers
57k views

Why do we need a 3-way handshake? Why not just 2-way?

The TCP 3-way handshake works like this: Client ------SYN-----> Server Client <---ACK/SYN---- Server Client ------ACK-----> Server Why not just this? Client ------SYN-----> Server ...
32
votes
8answers
7k views

How can I stop an intruder plugging into an Ethernet wall socket getting access to the network?

Is MAC address filtering the most suitable option to prevent someone connecting their own device to the network by plugging into Ethernet wall sockets? What if they unplug a device and clone its MAC?
6
votes
2answers
751 views

NAT Overlapping

I am trying to do some networking lab. Basically, I have a network like this: So, is it possible to configure NAT router in such way, that PC1 and PC2 can access remote HOST and each other. The ...
20
votes
3answers
52k views

How does a switch learn a switch table?

Say the switch table is empty. If computer A sends a frame destined to computer B, the switch will broadcast asking who has the mac address of B. What if C suddenly sends a frame to A? What is the ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

Implementing Cisco QoS model to end users

I have implemented the 4-Class QoS Model as described in this earlier post from 2013. This Core configuration is implemented on a Cisco VSS 6509-E setup running software version: Cisco IOS Software, ...
17
votes
4answers
7k views

Why use IP if we already have a MAC address?

I am preparing for ICND1 exams and recently started to learn about different Cisco devices. I have just come to know how the packet is generated to be transmitted over a network, or outside the ...
58
votes
7answers
15k views

Why are IPv4 addresses running out?

I understand that we are running out (or ran out already?) of IPv4 addresses, but I don't really understand why that is. Right now, every home has its own IPv4 address (dynamically assigned, but still,...
34
votes
3answers
103k views

How does gratuitous ARP work?

Does gratuitous ARP work like a normal ARP request? Why is gratuitous ARP used for HSRP?
21
votes
3answers
56k views

Why must all areas connect to an Area 0 backbone in OSPF?

This question is a literal repost of the same question asked on The Cisco Support Community. Answers are unique to Stack Exchange. Why is area 0 the backbone area in OSPF? Why must all other areas ...
29
votes
5answers
5k views

Why do we still use Ethernet?

There's no doubt the vast majority of Ethernet frames are transporting IP packets. I know there are various other protocols that can be transported over Ethernet as well, but those can be transported ...
8
votes
3answers
14k views

Why do I need a crossover cable to connect devices of the same type?

I know that a crossover cable should be used to directly connect devices of the same type and patch cable is used to connect devices of different types. But I never understood why is it so exactly? ...
32
votes
1answer
62k views

Using SNMP to retrieve the ARP and mac-address tables from a switch

I would like to get ARP tables from a switch to a syslog-ng server that has been set up on Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS. I have read about SNMP and I know the server will act as a manager and the switch as ...
32
votes
13answers
44k views

Difference between Subnet and VLAN?

You often hear the terms Subnet and VLAN used interchangeably. With the ubiquitous nature of IP these days, when are the two not considered roughly the same from a high-level, understanding that ...
38
votes
5answers
33k views

Why was the MTU size for ethernet frames calculated as 1500 bytes?

Is there any specific calculation that that was done to arrive at this number, and what were the factors that were taken into consideration for that calculation.
15
votes
4answers
5k views

Why is the CAM table in a switch called CAM table and not MAC table even though it holds MAC addresses?

I know the CAM table in a switch holds MAC addresses and the ports that are associated with the respective MAC addresses. There are no such thing as CAM addresses from my knowledge, so why is it ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

OSI model and physical location of the layers

Hi Cisco student/newbie here! I understand that data passes down through the OSI model and then at the physical layer is transported as bits across the networkcables. But I'm confused at exactly ...
22
votes
5answers
83k views

Is it safe to use any wifi channel in the 2.4GHz band?

It seems that everything I read about wifi says there are only three usable channels in the 2.4 GHz band; however, there are eleven 2.4Ghz wifi channels allowed in the US. If everyone is using 1, 6 ...
15
votes
2answers
23k views

Traceroute - every packet has TTL == 1

I'm working on Wireshark lab-IP in Computer networking - A top down approach and I don't understand why every packet that normally expired has a TTL of 1. Here is my Wireshark capture file. https://...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

VLAN and subnet relationship

Many have pointed out that a VLAN can hold one or more subnets. If your default gateway for this subnet is on a router or a L3 switch then how could there be more than one default gateway in a VLAN ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

How does NAT share one public IPv4 address across multiple private IPv4 addresses [closed]

I think it's a very classical question, but, thought I've have some background, I don't have enough vocabulary anymore to search and understand correctly in the Web. Let's say I have a home network ...
3
votes
4answers
3k views

How does DHCP assign an IP address?

I understand that IP address is a unique address to identify a machine in a network. But for the first time when i Plug in say ethernet cable of a network to my PC's Ethernet Port, how the IP address ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

How does the router know how to route the packets to my terminal?

Suppose I have a network of 2 computers, each having a private network address of 192.168.1.101 and 192.106.1.102. For my public ip address, it is 10.2.10.172. When I make a http request to google....
52
votes
10answers
93k views

Why only port 80 for web services?

Why isn't it sensible to dedicate more than one TCP/IP port to http? Although admittedly naive, isn't it somehow intuitive to think that server performance could somehow be increased?
47
votes
24answers
87k views

How can I see which switchports are not in use?

On a large Cisco Catalyst switch stack, almost all switchports are patched. I need to identify the ports, which are not in use, for connecting further devices. Following switchports, cabling, patch ...
24
votes
9answers
64k views

Reason for both a MAC and an IP address

If my computer has an IP address,why does it need a MAC address?
40
votes
4answers
34k views

Bits per second vs. Packets per second

Lately I have been checking datasheets of several switch models from diferent vendors. For a given switch, vendors publish a couple of figures that I think are a measure of the capacity/performance of ...
18
votes
7answers
6k views

Does CIDR really “do away” with IP address classes?

I am still struggling to understand to what extent CIDR really renders IP address classes obsolete. Here's what I understood so far: It's ridiculously inefficient (and impossible, too) to assign ...
18
votes
7answers
13k views

what is the purpose of network address? (aka subnet address)

What is the purpose of network address? (aka subnet address, starting address of each subnet) For example in this network: 192.168.1.0/24 Why we should leave 192.168.1.0 address free?
17
votes
4answers
61k views

Confusing A, B, C network classes

I'm studying IPv4 addresses and came across this whole thing about classful addressing. I get the idea behind it, bit there is something I find confusing: There are two "ABC" ranges: First one: A: ...
9
votes
2answers
3k views

How NAT / PortForwarding / TCP/IP works?

I recently read an article entitled how NAT works. Some things still remain unclear to me. I would be thankful if someone could explain. Below is the part of the article regarding DynamicNAT that is ...
9
votes
3answers
31k views

How does a switch learn a MAC address not in its lookup table?

I have a relatively dumb question. Suppose the Switch just started, and it received a frame that contains a destination MAC address for a network device not in its MAC addresses table. What happens ...
18
votes
6answers
10k views

Best practice for the combination of HSRP and ECMP

The combination of ECMP (or other causes of asymmetric paths) and HSRP is broken by default in Cisco IOS; the default behaviour with this design floods unicast traffic excessively. What is the best-...
23
votes
4answers
103k views

How can I capture traffic on Cisco IOS switches?

For investigating a problem in client to server communication, I need to capture packets for analysis. However it's not allowed to install a packet analyzer, such as Wireshark or tcpdump, on client or ...
9
votes
1answer
7k views

Four layer-2 addresses in 802.11 frame header

I am new to wireless LAN. I see that it has 4 addresses in the frame header. In case of a Wired Ethernet, there are only 2 mac addresses, the source and the destination (which is essentially the ...
16
votes
8answers
30k views

What is real difference between host and node in network

According to wikipedia host is A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or ...
9
votes
3answers
7k views

How are Weighted Fair Queuing and Weighted Random Early Detection related?

I'm trying to understand how QoS systems work and I'm not sure how exactly would WFQ and WRED interact. At first, I thought that WFQ is a queuing mechanism and that WRED is a congestion avoidance ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

How are MAC/IP addresses used in routing

I have to teach my sixth form about MAC Addresses and IP Addresses in a few weeks time and there are some areas I am unclear on which I am hoping some of you will be able to clarify for me. I have ...
19
votes
4answers
24k views

LAP ignores DHCP Option 43 and uses CAPWAP UDP broadcasts

Background I am trying to redeploy Cisco 1242 LAPs on new Cat4507R+E switches, which means the IP address of the WLC is changing for that LAP. For some reason, I have to configure ip helper-addresses ...
15
votes
3answers
6k views

Configure Cisco ASA in Transparent mode: Layer2 DMZ w/ Vlan translation

I am in the middle of a project to migrate some existing switched ethernet dot1q trunks behind an ASA firewall... these trunks have five vlans each (numbered 51 - 55). This is a simple drawing of the ...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Mac / CAM entries from non-Cisco switches with Q-BRIDGE-MIB

How do I do community string Indexing for other switches like D link DES 3526 and Brocade Fastiron SX800? I am running a java program to poll a specific vlan on a Brocade sx 800 l3 switch. The ...
8
votes
2answers
11k views

How do wifi clients detect SSIDs from APs?

How can my wifi board detect wireless networks that are in range? What protocol is used to communicate with the devices in the area to announce a wifi AP? Does every router transmit on its own ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

UDP hole punching NAT port

I just read an article about the process of "punching holes" with the UDP protocol. I understand how it's done, but I have one last question to clear up things. We have the rendezvous server and ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

What do these three options in a Cisco Router NAT configuration mean?

In a standard Static PAT configuration, where one IP:Port combination is always mapped to another IP:Port combination, there are three possible combinations of inside/outside/source/destination that ...
17
votes
2answers
22k views

Ethernet autonegotiation differences between (10M | 100M | 1G) Ethernet

I am studying for CCNA and on Wendell Odom's book is said that(regarding autonegotiation): When autonegotiation fails on one node, to choose (half/full-duplex) we must use the rule: If you have a 10/...

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