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3
votes
4answers
35k views

What is the difference between smart vs managed switch?

I want to buy a new switch to replace an old one which is unmanaged and I see that there are smart and managed switches.. what it the difference?
3
votes
4answers
154 views

Need of routers and IP addresses

I dont know if my research is enough or not but I could not find answers on the net. My question is why not use bridges instead of routers. We know bridges can connect two different networks. Using ...
1
vote
2answers
536 views

How can I set the Juniper EX3300 Switch's Interface traffic speed?

How can I set the Juniper EX3300 Switch's Interface traffic speed? Before asking this question I have attempted many methods, all fail. first of all, set the Interface traffic speed is not the ...
1
vote
2answers
214 views

Does the same IP cause IP conflict if one is from /22 other is from /24?

I have two hosts. They both have the same IP/subnet, ex.: 1.2.3.4/24 on both. I know this is bad, since there will be duplicate IP in the network. OK. But: If I have different (?) ranges: 1.2.3.4/...
1
vote
1answer
4k views

HSRP issue both device active stats

Here is the Diagram. Ip address: ISP: [VIP]- 10.107.25.5 [R1] - 10.107.25.6 [R2] - 10.107.25.7 Me: [VIP] - 10.107.25.10 [SW1] - 10.107.25.11 [SW2] - 10.107.25.12 Configuration on port: SW1 ...
16
votes
4answers
44k views

Bad Mask for IP Address Error

I'm not too clear on subnetting rules and experienced an error when I tried to assign 148.26.1.176/28 to an interface on my Cisco router. Can someone please explain why it was not allowing me to ...
15
votes
4answers
36k views

How are two “ip helper-address” statements handled?

I've discovered a subnet with two "ip helper-address" statements. This is not our normal configuration. interface Vlan300 ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.0 ip helper-address 10.2.1.10 ip helper-...
13
votes
2answers
28k views

Open a range of TCP ports in Cisco IOS NAT

ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.10 10.10.10.9 route-map RANGE ! route-map RANGE permit 100 match ip address 102 ! access-list 102 permit tcp host 192.168.1.10 range 3000 3389 any The ...
9
votes
3answers
18k views

Assign an IP address based on switch port

Short: I want DHCP server to assign a preconfigured IP address based on a port (on a switch, ideally) a device is connected to. Long: My situation: I am building an automated indoor farm (for ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

How is IEEE 802.1ad (aka VLAN Tagging, QinQ) valid, when the packets are too large?

Recently i've been dealing with MTU issues. And it all seems to stem from the fact that the ethernet adapter on newer computers default of a frame size of 1504 bytes: >netsh interface ipv4 show ...
7
votes
2answers
7k views

Dell PowerConnect 5524 VLAN routing

I have a Dell PowerConnect 5524 that I'm trying to configure. What I want is simple routing between VLANs and the user guide is less than helpful. On page 220, it says (or implies) that all you need ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Cisco 867 forward UDP port range

I need to forward an UDP port range to a specific private IP address in my LAN. In order to forward one port to an internal IP I do: access-list <acc_list_number> permit <port_type> any ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Why is the ICMP protocol considered to run at layer 3 on the Wikipedia page?

Why is the ICMP protocol considered to run at layer 3 on the Wikipedia page (same layer as IP) when the ICMP protocol data is a payload of the IP packet? This is the article on Wikipedia that states ...
5
votes
5answers
313 views

What blocks a computer from another network in the same switch from answering an ARP request?

Let's suppose I have 3 computers A, B and C connected to the same switch with only the native VLAN active. A and B belong to the same network, let's say that their IP addresses are 192.168.1.1/24 for ...
5
votes
1answer
8k views

How to trace a MAC address on a switched LAN?

How to trace a MAC address on a switched LAN? I want to be able to find out a switch port's MAC address. No device uses IP, therefore no address resolution and no SNMP. No device runs CDP, therefore ...
5
votes
2answers
281 views

Why FastEthernet STP Link Selected over EtherChannel?

What are the possible reasons why STP would choose to use a FastEthernet link over an EtherChannel? Below is a network diagram where this is happening.
5
votes
5answers
190 views

How do two computers with different speeds communicate

This is one extremely basic and probably equally dumb question that I just couldn't ever find a definite answer to. Suppose we have 2 computers one that can transmit data at say 10 bits per second (A)...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Does a switch MAC address table sync across all switches in the same VLAN?

Ok, I have read up about this 16K limit for the MAC address table, or better known as the CAM table, on certain switches. Lets say I have 14 different edge switches with that 16K limit, and I have ...
5
votes
1answer
860 views

Why are routers not answering ARP Broadcasts?

Host A wants to send something to Host B who is in a different network. Between them is Router 1. Host A sends an ARP broadcast but Router 1 is not answering it. Why is that so?
4
votes
3answers
746 views

Is there any reason to use a hub over a switch?

Given that hubs are essentially the same as switches, as far as I know, except they share bandwidth between all connected devices, while switches do not, resulting in faster connections. I am simply ...
4
votes
1answer
682 views

What is the point of a subnet mask on a local network?

I have a question regarding subnet masks and my understanding (or misunderstanding of them). So when a subnet mask is used, a bitwise AND is performed using the subnet mask and the IP address(es). ...
4
votes
2answers
661 views

Ethernet's frame format, length or EtherType?

Ethernet defines a 2 byte header for the payload's length in its frame format. This header has an ambiguous meaning: if smaller than or equal to 1500 it represents the payload length. if ...
4
votes
2answers
214 views

How to understand the output below from BGP?

I don't understand some data of the show route: admin@MX-RE0# run show route 36.250.236.6 inet.0: 736608 destinations, 806660 routes (736608 active, 0 holddown, 7 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

Should I increase the timeout value for UDP on our VPN router-device?

We have a SonicWALL NSA 2400. We have numerous (100+) personnel in different offices in different physical locations that establish VPN sessions successfully every day. Some of these client computers ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Broadcasting traffic by 255.255.255.255 or by “subnet dot all ones”?

If a device wants to broadcast traffic does it send it to the "all ones" IP? (Which is 255.255.255.255)? Or does it send it to "the all ones of the subnet"? (For example if the subnet is 123.123.0.0/...
3
votes
1answer
351 views

question about switches and frame and forwarding table

hey guys was wondering if someone can potentially explain this to me but lets say switch-A just learned a Ethernet address on port 4 (00:0f:4b:02:63:ae) based on the forwarding table now a station ...
3
votes
3answers
647 views

Is it possible to perform a Layer 2 (MAC address) traceroute?

I understand the difference between layer2 & layer3 and MAC & IP. I understand address resolution protocol, etc. But is there any way to do a traceroute that will show Layer 2 information? For ...
2
votes
1answer
459 views

Cisco Prefix List Won't Appear in Route Table

I have the following prefix-list configured on our router: ip prefix-list adsvr seq 5 permit 172.30.5.241/32 ip prefix-list adsvr seq 10 permit 134.239.130.143/32 ip prefix-list adsvr seq 15 permit ...
2
votes
1answer
198 views

Do unmanaged switches honour QoS priorities set by managed switches?

Details about the devices We have a 24 port NETGEAR managed POE switch that has QoS capabilities. We also have the following unmanaged switches, 24 port Cisco POE, 48 port Cisco, 48 port NETGEAR, ...
2
votes
3answers
239 views

Why can't a host B act as a server, and accept TCP connections, when sitting behind a NAT?

Originally, I thought I intuitively understood why B can't accept TCP connections, however when I read about how P2P applications circumvent this exact problem by using an intermediate peer that is ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

how does Trace route packet work

I am fining difficulties understanding trace route command how does trace route works from source to a destination? how the routers reply to the source with their IP? thank you
1
vote
1answer
761 views

GNS3 Latency test

So I have a small topology ( 4 AS ), and I tested it on a real environment (College Lab) with Cisco routers (2000 series). The latency from one point to another was too high when I used GNS3, the ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Best path in BGP Routing

Assuming 'Network A' is having 2 ISPs which are directly connected to 'Network B', which path will be used to connect to 'Network B'? Network A --> IP Transit A / IP Transit B --> Network B
1
vote
2answers
83 views

Decrease the Router's buffer size

Through this topology, I want to decrease the buffer size of R2 in order to generate an ICMP Source Quench Message, but I have no idea how to do it. I'm open to other suggestions to generate a Source ...
1
vote
1answer
232 views

Connecting a router with cat 5 cable to a cat 7 network

I have a cat 7 network but the router, switch and APs are hooked up to it using cat 5 cables. Does this reduce the advantages of a cat 7 network?
1
vote
1answer
3k views

Routing Between 2 different vlans but same subnet

I have a basic doubt understanding vlan communication. Scenario: Let's say a single switch and has been configured with 2 vlans (vlan 100 and vlan 200). Vlan 100 connects to lets say 192.168.100.0 ...
0
votes
2answers
63 views

Sending ARP query message to another subnet

Host E would like to send some data to Host B. Further assume that Host E doesn't have Host B's MAC Address. When the router is present between sub net 2 and 3 no ARP query message is send but when ...
91
votes
12answers
28k views

IPv6 address space layout best practices

I'm comfortable with IPv4 address space allocations. By which I mean: Given services to plan for, or an organization to network, I have a good grasp of how to plan IP address space usage. (or at least,...
46
votes
8answers
4k views

Network Neutrality, how does it actually work, technically speaking?

In this NPR article there is mentioned 'network neutrality' with very little details on what it actually is or how it actually works. I tried researching it on my own but I get a lot of non-technical ...
39
votes
4answers
21k views

How to check for a valid public IP address?

Consider a list of IP addresses as provided by the X-Forwarded-For HTTP header: 10.0.0.142 , 192.168.0.10 , 212.43.234.12 , 54.23.66.43 I would like to know which is the first publicly-accessible ...
39
votes
11answers
35k views

How do you prevent rogue wireless access points on a network?

Depending on what type of traffic is going over the network, it's often not feasible that an employee brings a wireless router and sets it up into your network. This is because often, they are not or ...
37
votes
8answers
28k views

How would a router with /32 WAN subnet mask communicate with the rest of the Internet?

I'm studying networking and one of the most basic things I've been told countless times is that computers can't communicate outside of their own subnet. On the other hand, by looking at some ADSL ...
25
votes
5answers
53k views

Why is 4096 the max value for VLANs

The Tag Protocol Identifier is set to 16 bits. In the CCNA certification it is said that it's not possible to have more than 4096 VLANs. 4096 in binary is 1000000000000000. Since 16 bits are allocated ...
22
votes
4answers
46k views

Why use iBGP inside an Autonomous System, if IGP protocols fulfill the need for internal communication

Can anyone explain why we need iBGP for the routes when we have the IGP protocols (OSPF, RIP) for internal communication within the AS? I have read a lot of articles and books, but I could not find ...
19
votes
4answers
40k views

NACK vs. ACK? When to use one over the other one?

Personally I don't even feel that there is a need for ACK. It's faster if we just send NACK(n) for the lost packets instead of sending an ACK for each received packet. So when/which situations would ...
33
votes
5answers
3k views

Better Enterprise Multihoming

I would like to get some opinions regarding ways in which I can improve a BGP dual-provider, dual-router design. Each provider supplies a /24 public subnet. I will refer to the routers, circuits, ...
17
votes
6answers
56k views

What, exactly, is required to make Airplay work across VLANs? [closed]

It seems like AirPlay works out-of-the-box, vaguely speaking, only within a LAN. It's not clear to me exactly why, but it looks like at least discovery relies on broadcasts. Wikipedia states that ...
43
votes
4answers
44k views

Why is fe80::/10 reserved for link local addresses when fe80::/64 is actually used?

I understand that IPv6 reserves the fe80::/10 prefix for link local addresses, and that hosts select an address with a /64 prefix. Why is the reserved space so much larger than what is actually used ...
24
votes
1answer
10k views

Route servers and looking glasses - what are they?

I've heard the term "route server" and "looking glass" thrown around here. What are they, and why should I care?
13
votes
1answer
13k views

What is the 5 level QoS model (through config example)?

I have heard people stating that their network "operates a 5 level (or layer) QoS model" Sometimes they also mention a 7 level QoS model. Can anyone provide me with a Cisco IOS config example of ...

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