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10
votes
4answers
16k views

speed/duplex mismatch

How do mismatches occur; what is the impact of a mismatch on network connectivity; is resolution of mismatches really worth the effort; what are some ways to detect mismatches on a large scale?
10
votes
4answers
4k views

how to get scp via snmp to work with cisco routers?

I have a lab setup where I'm trying to use SCP via SNMP to a cisco router.I found some online documentation such as: http://ccie20728.wordpress.com/2008/05/20/get-the-cisco-configuration-over-snmp/ ...
9
votes
2answers
23k views

Window Size and ACK Number

Copy-pasting from my lecturer's slides: • Receiver indicates the window size is 3000 • Transfer goes ahead • Acknowledge every 3000 bytes • Receiver increases window size to 4000 • 4000 bytes ...
8
votes
2answers
24k views

Can I truly multicast over WIFI?

Am streaming UDP over wifi (5ghz) - approx 1.5k/packet... trying to stream to ~10 devices simultaneously, with extremely low latency.. As I understand Wifi, it can never true multicast, as each ...
8
votes
1answer
49k views

Why is my Router's WAN IP different from public IP?

My Router's WAN IP is a public IP - 172.100.x.x And my public IP is - 182.x.x.x Why do I have 2 public IP's? Does this probably mean that my router is behind another router? But then what is the use ...
7
votes
3answers
27k views

ARP request outside of LAN; Target machine or router response?

If I sent an ARP request to the target machine, which is in over Internet and has 2 routers between, what will the target IP address on my request (0001) packet be? Will it be the Router IP address, ...
6
votes
1answer
11k views

How do you configure a TACACS+ tac_plus server on Ubuntu 16.04 that authenticates against Microsoft Active Directory?

How do you configure a TACACS+ tac_plus server on Ubuntu 16.04 that authenticates against Microsoft Active Directory?
6
votes
2answers
800 views

is there a difference between Latency and speed ?

so latency is the time it takes for bits to get from the sender to the receiver and the speed is how fast bits travel , so logically the more speed the network has the more low latency it has ...
5
votes
2answers
5k views

Can a network with a default gateway successfully ping a PC in another network without gateway?

Please see the picture first. Let someone ping from PC1 to PC2 (which has no default gateway). Would it be possible for the ping to successfully reach to PC2 and then come back in the fashion ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

The best way to understand Vlans?

Every time i try reading about the configuration of a device and adding it to the network, i always face a problem. The problem is basically am not able to understand Vlan's, and how for example some ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Telnet - “Destination unreachable” response

I'm looking to implement, what I feel, is Telnet security when it comes to unwanted hosts initiating a Telnet connection to one of my devices. I can lock down a specific subnet or only allow a range ...
4
votes
3answers
10k views

Inter-switch IGMP on a VLAN with two switches, and a multicast source per switch

I have a network consisting of two HP 2810 switched. Attached to each switch is, on one port, a multicast video coder, and on a different port, a decoder. There are two VLANs - a control VLAN (...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the need for transport Layer?

In 5-layer model. Why we need additional transport layer? I read these two points Users who interact with software have no control over the sub-net; Transport Service can provide a more reliable ...
35
votes
3answers
2k views

Why do network taps have four ports?

I've been looking at a hardware network tap like this one to replace a pseudo-permanent SPAN that's been running on a Catalyst switch. All the taps I find have four interfaces: A, B, and two output ...
18
votes
4answers
8k views

Can DHCP Server determine client's OS? [closed]

Is it possible for the DHCP Server to determine the client operating system? I'm working on a monitoring tool for gateways on local networks that is web-based and would like to be able to somehow ...
15
votes
6answers
11k views

Reason for half-duplex mode in Ethernet?

Half-duplex connections were popular at the time of 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet, and, according to standards, it is allowed also in case of 1Gbps Ethernet. Am I correct that half-duplex mode support ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

Why are there 3 ranges of private IPv4 addresses?

Why are there three separate ranges of private IPv4 addresses of different sizes? Why not just reserve the largest (10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255) range and let people create /16 or /24 (or whatever) ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

Serialization and serialization times in 40G/10G and 100G/25G Ethernet

I've recently been involved in discussions about lowest-latency requirements for a Leaf/Spine (or CLOS) network to host an OpenStack platform. System architects are striving for the lowest possible ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

How to filter non-bogon prefixes received via BGP from an Internet Exchange(IXP)?

When connected to an Internet peering exchange(IXP), what is a good way to make sure that people don't send you prefixes that they shouldn't be announcing? With regards to bogons I'm aware of the ...
14
votes
3answers
43k views

How to Monitor Vlan Traffic?

We have migrated to a new ISP who provide us several services (Internet+VoIP+VoD) and have divided each service in one vlan 100,101,102 respectively. Now I'm looking for a solution to monitor each ...
13
votes
2answers
9k views

What is a non-portable IPv4 address block?

For example, a Whois query for 4.4.4.0 says: ADDRESSES WITHIN THIS BLOCK ARE NON-PORTABLE Does the owner simply declare the block or a subnet are not up for sale? Or does non-portable have a ...
13
votes
4answers
17k views

MTU and Fragmentation

Consider the following: NAS with 10G interface connected to 10G interface on switch. Client computers connected to switch via gigabit Ethernet. Will there be any gain in performance if MTU size is ...
12
votes
4answers
9k views

What is the use of wild card masks vs normal masks

I've always wondered what the use of wild card masks was. When I learned about them in college I wondered what the use was, we saw that you could separate subnets by for instance even and uneven IPs. ...
12
votes
3answers
12k views

OSPF Stuck in Exstart Adjacency State

According to this article two routers will get stuck in the exstart adjacency state when their configured MTU sizes do not match. Does a VLAN tag affect this as well even if the routers involved are ...
11
votes
11answers
4k views

Locate a host on Network

What is the best method of locating a particular workstation on a VLAN ? I sometimes need to do this, if a workstation IP address, shows up on an ACL Deny torrent use High bandwidth usage (Top ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

How did I break (half of) my network?

I'm looking for some post-event advice so this event doesn't happen again. We have a network core of two Cisco 4500x switches, configured for VSS redundancy. From those, we have iSCSI devices, our ...
10
votes
1answer
7k views

Authenticate ssh key via Cisco ACS (TACACS+)

I can set a router to authenticate via a ssh public-key with: ip ssh pubkey-chain username admin key-string <ssh-pub-key> exit exit Is it possible to do something similar with Cisco ...
10
votes
2answers
19k views

IPv6 link-local vs unique local

When do you use link-local or unique local in IPv6 networks? (Cisco doesn't manage to explain it properly in their online material.)
10
votes
4answers
151k views

What can cause “FastEthernet is up, line protocol is down” on a Cisco Switch?

I wonder what can cause the first line output of the command show interfaces to be: FastEthernet is up, line protocol is down. In other words, Is the cable that is connected to the local interface, ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Network Gateways vs Interfaces

When looking at the contents of a routing table section on the Wikipedia article on Routing Tables, it contains a table as an example of a routing table with two headings which have an unclear ...
9
votes
4answers
3k views

Advantage of layer 3 switch over Router

What is the advantage of Layer 3 switch over the Router ??
9
votes
4answers
27k views

How to know whether a protocol uses TCP or UDP

Well I know that might sound a stupid question and I believe that the most proper answer will be like I will be able to tell as my experience builds up and I learn more and more about the protocols. ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

Cisco NAT hairpinning

I have a Cisco router configured NAT (4 static NAT and dynamic NAT). My problem is that I can't access internal servers using public IP addresses from the internal network. I know what the problem ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Something is filling my force10 ARP table

I have 2 force10 s25 switches that are used for a dark fiber link between two school buildings. One of my switches is filling its ARP table to the brim and then failing. This can happen as often as ...
8
votes
3answers
17k views

Traceroute Over TCP vs UDP

For what purpose would one wish to send traceroute over TCP rather than UDP? What advantages/disadvantages are there in doing so? I know that traceroute normally uses UDP ICMP "echo" packets while ...
7
votes
5answers
21k views

Copy running config in one line

I want to make a script to copy the running config of a switch 4506 in one line. So far, I see two option : copy run tftp: sw#copy run tftp://10.0.0.1/cfg.cfg Address or name of remote host [10....
7
votes
4answers
541 views

Why is the IP layer aware of higher layers in the network stack?

In the IP packet header there is an 8-bit Protocol field (at offset 9) that holds the "next level protocol", with assigned numbers given in RFC 790. For example, TCP is 6. My question is, why is the ...
7
votes
4answers
781 views

What exactly is the difference between SDN & NFV?

What is the difference between SDN (Software Defined Networking) & NFV (Network Function Virtualization)? Wikipedia says NFV relies on standard client-server model. How is this model different ...
7
votes
1answer
8k views

When is an IPv4 TTL decremented and what is the drop condition?

When an IPv4 packet traverses a router or is processed by a host, the TTL is decremented and if the TTL is too low, the packet is dropped. My questions are: When is the TTL decremented? Before or ...
7
votes
5answers
6k views

Moving interface names on a Cisco ASA while maintaining the rest of the configuration in place

My initial problem: I’ve run out of physical ports on my ASA 5525-X My initial solution: Create sub-interfaces on a port-channel and use a switch to aggregate my VLANs The subsequent issue: How do I ...
7
votes
3answers
4k views

Why do we need MAC Address if we can uniquely identify each machine with an IP Address

I learnt that in ARP Protocol, to send a packet from one machine to another machine we need to know the MAC Address of the destination machine but since the destination has already been assigned a ...
7
votes
2answers
15k views

Poison reverse example

Can you give me an example when poison reverse is actually necessary? Distance vector routing protocols employ split horizon with poison reverse to minimize the convergence time when a route is no ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

OSPF and its use of Multicast

When it comes to OSPF and its use of multicast, am I correct in believing that IGMP forwarding and an IGMP querier is still required within the local segment? My understanding would be without this, ...
6
votes
2answers
573 views

MPLS can reroute, but can it route?

I have 4 Cisco routers, connected one to another like the following: **R1**(s1/0)--(s1/0)**R2**(s1/1)--(s1/0)**R3**(s1/1)--(s1/0)**R4** All of them have an IP address assigned on their interfaces. ...
6
votes
2answers
10k views

Why each and every single port on Layer 2 switches need to have it's own MAC address?

A switch doesn't alter the frame, and source/destination mac addresses remain how sending host specified them,so let me say it again Layer 2 Switching never changes the frames means no changes in MAC ...
6
votes
2answers
357 views

What Cisco will discard TTL=1 packets for own interface?

There have been a number of questions about router behaviour with IPv4 packets with TTL=1 and apparently contradictory answers. This question is not about what should a host or router do, it is a ...
5
votes
5answers
886 views

How we can assume which network protocol is working in which OSI Layer?

For a long time, I have this kind of silly question: How we can say some network protocols are working in X layer of the OSI model? For example, HTTP working in L7 of OSI, OSPF is L3, ICMP is L4, TCP ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

Optimizing Network Topology

Recently I wish to split the network by VLANs. Mainly for two reasons Exclude management interfaces from the commonly accessible lan Separate WiFi traffic (security and broadcasts) The current idea ...
5
votes
1answer
921 views

Cannot get port-forward working on ASA 5505: “Drop-reason: (acl-drop) Flow is denied by configured rule”

Months ago I made this post here on NE, but I still for the life of me just cannot figure our port-forwarding on my ASA 5505. I have since started over and am now trying the DMZ port instead, but ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

eBGP Dual ISP, Dual Edge Router

I am currently using a very simple eBGP and iBGP configuration in my network to route out through a single ISP. This diagram gives a rough idea of what I currently have in operation: I am running out ...

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