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1answer
62 views

what's the difference between trailer and padding field in ethernet frame captured by wireshark?

The Ethernet minimum length should be 64 Bytes, so when the data is less than 46B, there would be some extra bytes padding to the end of data, make sure the frame size up to 64B. When I capture the ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

I don't understand IP addressing for a router

I am taking an internet (CISCO) course and don't understand the difference between the default gateway address for a router and its IP address. In every example of the class the default gateway ...
-1
votes
1answer
29 views

Inconsistent address and mask error

When statically routing a route in the format [destination network address] [mask] [next hop address or interface name], I get the Inconsistent Address and mask error. Any assistance would be ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Determine the range of IP's avaliable for hosts on a subnet /28 [duplicate]

I am looking into my Virtual Switch configuration( Hyper-V ) and i am confused how the range of valid IP's is determined. The IP for configured for the "Virtual Switch" adapter is: IP: 192.168.53.65 ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

pfSense 1:1 NAT Not Working

Next year, if I have the money for it, I want to get a dedicated server (either from Hetzner or OVH) and some IPs (maybe like 16 IPs). The server will have Proxmox and VMs will get their network ...
0
votes
2answers
47 views

What is an acceptable bit error ratio?

I recently got a job in IT infrastructure and terminating Cat5e is something relatively new to me. What is an acceptable bit error rate for 1 million packets? Here is a screenshot of a test I ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

VLAN Subinterface Removal - CISCO ASA

The below are the configuration of the subinterfaces in Cisco ASA firewall and currently sub-interface 0/1.1 is only passing traffic and I need to remove 0/1.2 configuration from here as it is unused. ...
2
votes
2answers
205 views

transferring IPv4 /32 to another datacenter

We are planning to migrate one set of IPv4 /32 series owned by us, from one dedicated server provider to another provider. Is it necessary to have permission to release the IP series from previous ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

MTU size for PPPOE with QinQ

i used at as A pppoe server i have used QINQ secend tag in rotuer interface TenGigabitEthernet2/0/0.904 description Cust1-QINQ encapsulation dot1Q 904 second-dot1q any pppoe enable group PPPOE-...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Cisco ISE migration to Azure cloud

I would like to if any one has migrated Cisco ISE to Azure. Any challenges faced, how migration planis done. Currently using ISE with Administration Persona - 2 VMs Monitoring Persona - 2 VM's ...
0
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0answers
6 views

Why does the sender assume that packet n is lost if it receives 3 back to back ACKs of packet n-1? [duplicate]

I came across an unjustified statement in my study notes regarding TCP: If sender receives 3 duplicate ACKS back-to-back, it assumes that the next packet in sequence was lost, and re-transmits. ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Cisco Router Interface Connection Problems

I am new to networking and am configuring, I am trying to setup my connections in packet tracers for 3 different routers to talk to each other over Serial ports as attached. However, I did notice ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Is there a meaningful difference between Cat8x, Cat7x, and Cat6x rated RJ45 connectors?

Most shielded higher-end RJ45 connectors for cat6 are still shielded and gold-plated, as are cat7 and cat8. I've looked for any references; but every search I run is just about the cabling. So, I'm ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

How can i set a default Router Gateway in NSX-T [closed]

For an unknown reason , either typo or fat finger my OVM deploiment of my VMware NSX Unified Appliance 3 did not take the default gateway i supplied. So as a result i can only access from a web ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

RSTP - minimum hello time?

1) What's the minimum possible "hello time" for Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP)? Is it possible to reduce the hello time to e.g. 0.1 seconds? 2) Is the minimum dictated by the RSTP standard, or would it ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Should DHCP Snooping trigger errdisable

I'm using Cisco 3750s, with DAI and DHCP Snooping enabled. We have a couple.. lets say "overly inexpensive" IP phones in the building that will periodically loose their lease and not attempt to ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

Palo-Alto Interconnection

I am a novice with PaloAlto networks. For testing purposes, I have connected two PA-220 with each other. I configured the IP addresses from the same subnet. For me, like routers, these devices should ...
20
votes
2answers
5k views

How can the latency value be so low from Singapore to USA (~2ms)?

Here's the ping output from Singapore: 64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=50 time=1.96 ms Singapore to 8.8.8.8 = ~2ms Another ping output: 64 bytes from 23.59.8.146: icmp_seq=81 ttl=44 time=66....
0
votes
1answer
50 views

How can the location of an IP adress be manipulated? [closed]

there are VPN providers (and I also saw a PRIVATE website doing so) that use "virtual locations" for some IP's - they "geo-spoof" their real one. For example, when I entered the private websites IP ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Problem with getting IKEv1 tunnel between Cisco and Palo Alto to establish a tunnel more quickly

I have a Cisco 2901 router that has an IKEv1 IPSec VPN with a Palo Alto firewall. We had a problem with our existing VPN setup where it takes a long time to get the tunnel to come back up when re-...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Locating where an IP address lives

Without documentation or using console how can I locate a particular IP within my network? Specific issue is I have public IP sitting on a device at a datacenter. The IP address appears to be going ...
10
votes
4answers
2k views

WHY and HOW do routers and vlans break broadcast domains?

Everybody says routers (and vlans) break broadcast domains, but nobody goes into WHY that is, it seems. What's the router logic? Say I have three routers on my lan, with one main router and the ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Find device hosting server on the same network without knowing the local IP [duplicate]

I am developing a Java app that hosts a socket server. This server will exchange information with a mobile app connected on the same WiFi network. I am trying to create a seamless experience that ...
-1
votes
1answer
16 views

What role Wifi Password play in the connection with the AP?

I was trying to study about how my device connect to the AP via Wifi. I saw many concepts like WPA,WPA2,MIC, 4 Way Handshake and much more. I studied all of them but I still cant understand where in ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

why the size of a frame is dependent on the data that is being sent in the payload of the frame

I'm new to networking, just a question on frame size. I was reading a book which says: An interesting characteristic of character/byte stuffing, is that the size of a frame is dependent on the data ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Capture and display filters in wireshark (limit destination IP)?

In Wireshark I can successfully create this display filter that will only show traffic going to x.x.x.x ip.dst==x.x.x.x But how do I create a corresponding capture filter? E.g. if I remove all ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Upstream QoS garanteed bandwidth

In the network I'm trying to manage there is a satellite link, the upstream of which is ~ 7 Mbps. In this upstream, I need to allocate 1.5 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth for one single host, but nothing ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

What is ethernet length/type 0x9104

While capturing packets on my Raspberry Pi via my Wireshark tap (sudo tcpdump -i eth0 -w - > tcpdump.data) between my MacBook Pro and eero base station on ethernet, not wifi, the following packet ...
0
votes
2answers
77 views

Do I need STP enabled on all switches in a loop?

I have a network architecture where each of my N switches is connected to two others, making it a perfect loop. For example see the diagram below: I know that in order to avoid broadcast storms, I ...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

How can I use an HTTP CRL on Cisco IOS?

On a Cisco 867 running IOS 15.6(3)M7, I'm trying to do the following: TEST-GW1(config)#crypto pki trustpoint vpn-p2s-server-11 TEST-GW1(ca-trustpoint)#crl query http://myvpn/crls/21.crl % URL must ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

read traffic/bandwidth usage by protocol

I need to analyze the traffic of a Fortigate Firewall in my program. Currently, I can read the overall traffic using SNMP. The problem is that I need to analyze the type of traffic (HTTP, video ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Is it better to put a switch between the router and a host when running a long wire?

I want to run a 90m cable from my main router to a host. It will work, as 90m does not exceed the maximum length allowed. Router --(50m)--> Switch --(40m)--> Host A If the cable is long or has ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

If a server has both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, how does the DNS determine which to return? See the following example [closed]

These Pings were done at different times of the same day: C:\Users\LPress>ping www.ucla.edu Pinging gateway.lb.it.ucla.edu [164.67.228.152] with 32 bytes of data: C:\Users\LPress>ping www.ucla.edu ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

How Redundant Ethernet Bonding Works [closed]

I am currently trying to implement redundancy whereby hosts have 2 eth ports and both ports connect to different switches. If either switch fails (or if any port fails) there will still be a way to ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

openvswitch - mix OpenFlow and regular ports?

In Dell OS9 it was possible to mix OpenFlow and regular "OS9 ports" in what they called hybrid mode. I haven't used OS9 personally, but I noticed in OS10 they're running OpenVswitch under the hood. ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is Netflow Scope field?

I was looking at RFC3954, RFC7011 and some Cisco docs - however I can't find the answer for what is the Scope field is? What information does it carry?
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Q-IN-Q Tunnel between cisco and mikrotik not work

i have try to make A Q-IN-Q tennel between two router (cisco and Microik) through cisco switch in mikrotik VLAN ID = 10 IN interface ether1 VLAN ID = 20 in interaface Vlan10 ip address in interface ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

IPv6 SLAAC and Static DAD

I started learning about IPv6 and I wonder what happens when you mix SLAAC and static addresses in the same /64. My current understanding is as follows: Machine A with a statically configured ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

RSTP Sync received every 2 minutes after a TC

While digging into logs (debug spanning-tree event has been enabled) in order to troubleshoot communication losses after topology changes. I was able to notice once I triggered a TC, one specific ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

Juniper SRX Application Inactivity Timeout

Will the inactivity timeout set for the application "TCP-ALL" of 900 trump the default value of 1800 for junos-ssh if the application-set were matched in a security policy? Does it matter if the order ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

How can I use 1 static public IP address for multiple private networks in totally different physcical locations?

So, I know that DNS is important in the running of CDN services. DNS allows the routing client traffic to the physically nearest CDN server. Question is, how can I do the same thing without any DNS ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Does Internet Stream Protocol (IP version 5) work on the Internet?

IP with version number 5 is dedicated to the Internet Stream Protocol. Can you send such a packet on the internet at large, or will it be blocked/discarded?
4
votes
4answers
353 views

Layering unicast addressing over multicasts

My question has to do with layering of unicast over multicast and has two parts. Part 1. IP unicast over MAC multicast First part of the question is whether there is a standard that prohibits use of ...
1
vote
2answers
94 views

Cisco nexus CRC error on interface

I have dual stack vPC setup between 4 cisco nexus switch as per above design. I have noticed recently that getting CRC error on cisco 3064 all 4 interface connected to N9K, and during peak traffic ...
0
votes
5answers
47 views

IP Helper in Multiple Access Switches

Just a dumb question.. I have 1 core switch and 5 access switches. Just wondering if it would be best to setup the IP helper on all access switches rather than just on the core switch? Does this ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Filter Packet PPPoE Discovery

i have a sw nexus i have a router BGN with vlan 50 is going to sw then mode access to Client 1 and Client 2 BNG ==== SW1 == PORT1 =Client 1 (Mode access vlan 50) PORT2 =Client 2 (...
-1
votes
1answer
21 views

Real time video streaming over TCP [closed]

One of the topics I have been following for quite sometime is real-time streaming. Over the course of my research everyone suggested and says WebRTC (based on UDP) is the only solution to achieve real-...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Is mesh possible on fully wired AP-AP communication?

I am thinking on the implementation of a Wifi mesh, with the restriction that all AP-AP communication, including routing/bridging, should happen on ethernet. The reasons, why the lack of radio-based ...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

After routers within an AS have their routing tables sorted, how router A make sure the packets from it take the most efficient route to router Z?

Question in the title. I know a bit about IGP. My understanding is that these protocols only ensure every router in an AS knows about other routers within the AS. So, the scenario, correct me if I'm ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does Ethernet use EtherType field to determine what type of packet is in a frame instead of just looking at the packet header?

I'm studying for some networking concepts and have learned that a receiving host looks at an Ethernet frame's header to determine what protocol being used by the packet. It makes me wonder though, ...

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