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20 votes

Worst-case efficiency of PPP escaping mechanism

You might care to read RFC 1547 "Requirements for an Internet Standard Point-to-Point Protocol" which explains how the PPP was chosen. The thing I'd suggest you are missing is that ...
jonathanjo's user avatar
  • 16.3k
15 votes
Accepted

What does bandwidth (digital) really mean?

Does it mean it's electric circuitry is capable of serializing/deserializing (SERDES) 400G bits per second of data onto a wire while maintaining a relativley clean signal (low SNR)? Yes, that's what ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
14 votes
Accepted

Can throughput exceed the bandwidth of a network

The bandwidth is the number of bits that can be sent on a link in one second. The throughput is the amount of data that is sent, and that will need to subtract the protocol overhead from the bandwidth,...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
13 votes
Accepted

If TCP packets are pre acknowledged, what happens if packets are dropped?

Pre-ACKing is only possible because the near accelerator keeps the segment data in queue. Therefore, it can ACK in stead of the far destination, prompting the sender to advance the send window and ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
12 votes
Accepted

Bandwidth vs Throughput vs Data(bit) rate

Some of these terms are used differently by different people, but below is what is generally accepted. Bandwidth is the number of bits per second that a link can send or receive, including all flows. ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
11 votes

Bandwidth vs Throughput vs Data(bit) rate

Daily I see peoples even specialists in communication do mistakes about the three mentioned terms: Bandwidth: The unit of it is Hz, so it is mathematically is: High_Used_Frequency - Low_Used_Frequency....
Salar Kheder's user avatar
9 votes
Accepted

iperf: send specific volume?

The -l option is for the buffer and doesn't influence the amount of data transferred. You have to specify the desired amount of data with the client-only option -n in KByte or MByte. So for 10GB, ...
JFL's user avatar
  • 19.7k
9 votes

Why non-blocking switch needed?

However, as the term suggests, "theoretical" maximum speed is just a theory and it rarely happens in real-life conditions. That depends on your life, I guess. In my day job, we try to ...
Jörg W Mittag's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

How does link aggregation work in reality?

What really happens is that any one flow only uses one of the links. Different flows are assigned to different links based on a hashing algorithm, so, in aggregate, you get the full bandwidth of the ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
8 votes

Speed benefits when switching LAN from 1Gb copper to Fiber Optic

You are conflating many things here, so let's try to detangle the issues in your question. Data rate is data rate, regardless of the physical medium. A 1Gb connection has the same data rate whether ...
Ron Trunk's user avatar
  • 67.6k
8 votes
Accepted

Stupid question about bandwidth

IP subnetting / address ranges and bandwidth have absolutely no correlation whatsoever. IP networks are based on packets. Packet networks don't allocate bandwidth for devices that are just connected. ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
8 votes

How do two computers with different speeds communicate

I would imagine that with TCP A will resend the packages until it's gotten an acknowledgement for them all which would degrade A's performance because of having to resend packages all day long (...
DRP's user avatar
  • 1,491
8 votes
Accepted

Cisco Router (ISR4221) Throughput - Why so slow?

That's by product design. ISR 4k come with a platform shaper (upgradeable to ~2x the value by license upgrade with the "PERF" license). Cisco say that the limits of the platform shapers can be fully ...
Marc 'netztier' Luethi's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

Why are there 11 channels in WiFi communication instead of 3?

IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) uses the 2.4 GHz ISM band that existed decades before IEEE 802.11 was defined, and the band was divided into 5 MHz channels. Wi-Fi uses 22 MHZ bandwidth, more bandwidth than a ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
7 votes

How do two computers with different speeds communicate

With directly connected computers, both need to use the same speed when sending to each other. Transmitting and receiving with different speeds requires splitting up the data into packets and some ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
7 votes

What is the difference between Ethernet types, considering bandwidth?

Different types of Ethernet (standard Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet) have different speed of data transfer (10 Mbit, 100 Mbit, 1 Gbit). Why is that? Progress - technology advances. ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
6 votes
Accepted

In 802.11 Wi-Fi, Is it better to be on the same channel as other networks instead of being in an overlapping channel?

It is better to be in the same channel as your interfering signals (if you can't find a free channel) rather than in overlapping channels that are not the same channel - if you are in a nearby channel,...
Ecnerwal's user avatar
  • 2,746
6 votes
Accepted

Differences between Enterprise internet connections with the same nominal bandwidth

A few things you should look at: is the bandwidth symmetrical? I.E. do you get 150Mbps download AND 150Mbps upload? is the bandwidth guaranteed? what are the S.L.A. (Service Level Agreement)? In case ...
JFL's user avatar
  • 19.7k
6 votes

How do two computers with different speeds communicate

In addition to the completely correct answers about speed matching directly connected systems ... One of the fundamentals of the internet (including all the private routing portions) is that the ...
jonathanjo's user avatar
  • 16.3k
6 votes
Accepted

Why is internet speed called Bandwidth?

You might find this answer helpful as regards the engineering terms What is the meaning of the word 'band' in the following terms: broadband, baseband and bandwidth? But I believe the ...
jonathanjo's user avatar
  • 16.3k
6 votes
Accepted

Fiber to copper conversion, what are the odds?

Fiber media converter is a small device with two media-dependent interfaces and a power supply, simply receive data signals from one media, convert and transmit them to another media. It can be ...
Cow's user avatar
  • 1,732
5 votes

Time Division Multiplexing and Transmission Rate

According to my textbook, with TDM, each circuit gets all of the bandwidth periodically during brief intervals of time (that is, during slots). Yes, that's correct. If we have a circuit switched ...
Łukasz Bromirski's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Significance of Bisection Bandwidth, Full Bisection Bandwidth, Subscription and their differences

It's not really all that difficult. When you bisect a network, such as a data center, the bisection bandwidth is the bandwidth usable to get from one side of the bisection to the other, possibly ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
5 votes
Accepted

How does bandwidth throttling work

Mostly, the packets get dropped. Some packets may get buffered in queues, but the queues aren't very big. Policing is probably what the hotel uses, and policing is simply dropping traffic in excess of ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
5 votes

Trying to find out exact TCP overhead cost

Overhead is usually calculated based on the total data size. That way, the figure matches the efficiency value. For TCP over IPv4 over Ethernet you have (without header options): L1 overhead - ...
Zac67's user avatar
  • 84.8k
5 votes

Would multiple connections to a network make the connection faster?

In most instances for hosts, no. Each interface is generally a separate network. Some hosts (usually servers) can use multiple (generally a maximum of eight) connections bonded together as a single ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
5 votes

How to know the interface utilization on a Cisco switch?

What you are looking at is the bit rate over the last five minutes. You can change the time period, but not below 30 seconds with the load-interval command. I'm not sure what you mean by "utilization....
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k
5 votes
Accepted

How does throttling of network traffic work (to limit bandwidth by ISP e.g.)?

This really has nothing to do with TCP, or any other layer-4 protocol. For the most part, this is done simply through policing (dropping) any inbound packets that would exceed the bandwidth limit. ...
Ron Maupin's user avatar
  • 99.8k

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